South African inventions

first_imgMediaClubSouthAfrica.com reporter The dolos, a South African invention in which interlocking blocks of concrete are used to protect seawalls and preserve beaches from erosion, at the Coega deep-water port.(Image copyright Coega)Where would you expect to find the inventor of the CAT scan, the makers of the “speed gun” used in cricket ovals the world over, or the world’s first oil-from-coal refinery?There’s a wide range of innovative and entrepreneurial activity in South Africa, backed up by a number of organisations that provide support for budding inventors and innovators.Q20CAT scanOil from coalHeart transplantSpeed gunKreepy KraulyAPS therapyPratley PuttyDolosseQ20, a multi-purpose lubricant The product was developed back in 1950 in Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal, by a Mr Robertson, who reportedly had come up with an effective water repellent that kept rust at bay, eased squeaky door hinges, and made it easy to release rusted or seized nuts and bolts.Apparently Robertson did not know what to call it but he told his neighbour that it certainly had 20 answers to 20 questions, and the name Q20 stuck.Today the product, and others in the range, is used widely in South African offices, workshops and homes, and has set the standard for all subsequent similar products from around the world. It is also sold in the US and UK/Europe.According to Q20 manufacturing company Triton-Leo, the secret to the wonder substance’s efficiency is that unlike oil, it is heavier than water. Once Q20 is sprayed on water, it sinks to the bottom, where it acts as a water displacer and lubricant on the problem area.Triton-LeoCAT scanThe computed axial tomography scan, or CAT scan, was developed at Tufts University in the UK by South African physicist Allan Cormack and Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories. Their achievement secured them the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.Cormack’s interest in the problem of X-ray imaging of soft tissues or layers of tissue of differing densities was first aroused when he took up the part-time position of physicist for a hospital radiology department.The two-dimensional representations of conventional X-ray plates were often unable to distinguish between such tissues. More information could be gained if X-rays of the body were taken from several different directions, but conventional X-ray techniques made this procedure problematic.In the early 1960s Cormack showed how details of a flat section of soft tissues could be calculated from measurements of the attenuation of X-rays passing through it from many different angles.He thus provided the mathematical technique for the CAT scan, in which an X-ray source and electronic detectors are rotated about the body and the resulting data is analysed by a computer to produce a sharp map of the tissues within a cross-section of the body.Nobel e-Museum: Allan CormackOil from coalSasol is the world’s first – and largest – oil-from-coal refinery. It is situated in Sasolburg in South Africa and provides 40% of the country’s fuel.The history of Sasol began in 1927 when a White Paper was tabled in Parliament to investigate the establishment of a South African oil-from-coal industry.It was realised then that, because South Africa did not have crude oil reserves, the country’s balance of payments had to be protected against increasing crude oil imports. After many years of research and international negotiations, the South African Coal Oil and Gas Corporation was formed in 1950.Major milestones include the first automotive fuel (1955), the construction of the National Petroleum Refiners of South Africa (1967), the establishment in 1990 of its first international marketing company, Sasol Chemicals Europe, and a joint venture agreement signed with Uzbekneftegaz in 2009 to establish a gas-to-liquids venture in Uzbekistan.Sasol has developed world-leading technology for the conversion of low-grade coal into value-added synfuels and chemicals.SasolHeart transplantThe world’s first heart transplant was performed by Dr Christiaan Barnard in Cape Town on 3 December 1967.Barnard was born in the town of Beaufort West in 1922. The seeds of his future career were sown when one of his patients delivered a baby boy with a heart defect which could not be remedied. The baby died, causing him to think deeply about the need for remedial surgery and the replacement of heart valves.A turning point came when Barnard was offered a chance to work in Minneapolis in the US under Professor Wagensteen, a great teacher of experimental surgery. The heart-lung machine was perfected, and this turned out to be the gateway to cardiac surgery.The idea of transplanting occurred to Barnard. If it was possible with kidneys, why not the heart? After more years of study in the US, he returned to South Africa with a parting gift from Prof Wagensteen – a heart-lung machine.Groote Schuur hospital was waiting his return in 1958 to start the first heart unit to perform a cardiac bypass operation.After performing the first successful kidney transplant on Edith Black, in October 1967 Barnard informed Professor Val Schrire, who had built up the cardiac clinic: “Everything is ready for a heart transplant. We have the team and we know how to do it.”In November 1967, Schrire called Barnard and told him that there was a suitable patient for a heart transplant. Louis Washkansky was suffering from heart failure and was prepared to take the chance. The rest is history.Barnard passed away in Cyprus, Greece on 2 September 2001 from an acute asthma attack.Speed gunThe South African-made speed gun, developed by Somerset West inventor Henri Johnson, was formally launched at The Oval in England during the 1999 Cricket World Cup.In 1992 Johnson, an engineer witha background in sonar and radar, invented the Speedball which was manufactured by South African firm Electronic Development House. The device accurately measures the speed and angles of speeding objects such as cricket and tennis balls.Generally referred to as a “speed gun”, Johnson’s gizmo is sold in cricketing countries and in the US and Europe. It has also been adapted for other ball sports such as tennis and golf. Johnson has since moved his company to Orlando, Florida, to better keep up with world trends.Kreepy KraulyThe swimming pool vacuum cleaner was invented by Ferdinand Chauvier, a hydraulics engineer who came to South Africa from the Belgian Congo in 1951.Chauvier quickly realised that there was a huge market for taking the hassle out of cleaning swimming pools, and went about inventing a machine that would do the job automatically, efficiently powered by the ordinary operation of the pool’s filter.But it wasn’t until 1974 that the first Kreepy Krauly was born in Chauvier’s Springs home.He died in 1985, but Kreepy Kraulys continue to keep thousands of pools clean in South Africa and the world over.APS therapyGervan Lubbe was flicking through an American medical journal one day when he stumbled across an article about pain relief. After reading all he could on the topic, he wondered whether it would be possible to electronically stimulate the body’s natural nerve impulses to relieve pain.Lubbe, had always had a keen interest in medicine, but never thought he was clever enough to be a doctor. So in his spare time he studied human anatomy and physiology until he thought he knew enough about the causes of arthritic pain. Then he set out inventing a device that would alleviate the problem.After building the first prototypes and obtaining approval from the health department and the Food and Drug Administration in the United States, Lubbe formed the company Tech Pulse in 1993 to produce, market and distribute the Action Potential Stimulation device.Today, Lubbe’s devices are sold in 41 countries, including the US, Europe and the Middle East. In South Africa alone, over 40 000 people use the little machines to relieve pain.APS TherapyPratley PuttyPratley’s famous glue is the only South African invention that has been to the moon. In 1969 the putty was used to hold bits of the Apollo XI mission’s Eagle landing craft together.Krugersdorp engineer George Montague Pratley invented his famous sticky stuff in the 1960s while looking for a glue that would hold components in an electrical box.Pratley died in 1983 and today the company is run by his son, Kim. Hundreds of tons of Pratley putty have been exported all over the world, and the company has diversified into other products.PratleyDolosseDolosse are large, unusually shaped concrete blocks weighing up to 20 tons. The structures are designed to break up wave action and protect harbour walls and coastal installations.Designed by Eric Merrifield and first installed in East London harbour, they are now used all over the world.The Coega Project, comprising an industrial development complex and deepwater port 20 kilometres east of the city of Port Elizabeth, recently made history with the casting of the biggest dolosse on the African continent.A layer of 25 000 30-ton dolosse has been laid on the two breakwaters for the deep-water harbour of Ngqura.According to Deon Retief, the partner responsible for the Nqura breakwater design at Prestedge Retief Dresner Wijnberg, the dolosse comprise the top layer of the main breakwater which, at 2.5 kilometres long, is the “largest by far” in Africa.Q20 extract by Emily van Rijswijck. Other information taken from Great South African Inventions by Mike Bruton, published by Cambridge University Press in their Indigenous Knowledge Library series. ISBN 978 0 521 74663 2.Useful linksAcademy of Science of South AfricaCouncil for GeoscienceCouncil for Scientific and Industrial ResearchDepartment of Science and TechnologyInnovation FundInnovation HubNational Advisory Council on InnovationNational Research FoundationNational Science and Technology Forum AwardsNational Science and Technology ForumPublic Understanding of BiotechnologySABS Designs InstituteSouth African Aids Vaccine InitiativeSouth African Biodiversity Information FacilitySouth African Bureau of StandardsSouthern African Large TelescopeSquare Kilometre Array South AfricaTechnology Top 100last_img read more

Ohio Ag Weather and Forecast — June 26, 2018

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest  We squeeze out another mostly dry day across Ohio today, with sunshine and pleasant temperatures. Moisture is moving east, though ,coming out of Illinois this morning and it will take all day to spread across Indiana. This will put scattered rain showers into western and NW Ohio overnight tonight. The moisture then spreads across the rest of the state through tomorrow and into the early part of Thursday.  Rain and thunderstorm action should trigger .25”-1.5” of rain over 100% of the state. There are very good chances of strong thunderstorms and a threat of severe weather. We will need those to see precipitation totals get up toward the higher end of the range.We dry down Thursday midday and will stay dry for the following 4 days in a row. That means we have sunny and dry weather in the forecast for Friday through Sunday. Temps will build to slightly above normal levels but will not be overly hot.Scattered showers and thunderstorms develop overnight Sunday night into Monday, starting in NW Ohio and then spreading east and sagging south. This will bring rains to the entire state for the period from Sunday overnight through Tuesday midday. Rain totals will be from a quarter to three quarters of an inch with coverage at 80% of the state. Clouds break later Tuesday, but only for a short time.For the Independence Day holiday on the 4th, we are going to have to increase our rain chances this morning. It looks like the minor front we had been looking for on the 5th has decided to speed up slightly and arrive for the 4th. Moisture totals are not impressive, perhaps a few hundredths to a tenth or two, but we can’t say we stay completely dry either. So, just be away of the minor action.We are then dry for the 5th through the 8th.Changes in the extended 11-16 day window means we are looking at our front there to shift back to the 9th, allowing for .1”-.5” to develop over the eastern corn belt, and coverage will be around 70%. A strong high still will try to develop by the end of the 16-day window, and that would promote a dry stretch into mid-month.Temperatures today will stay below normal, but tomorrow through the rest of the 10-day period, we will be a bit above normal. There is not significant heat, as we mentioned above, but we think that highs will average about 2-4 degrees above normal for this time of year as we flip the calendar into July and go through the holiday weekend.Our general sentiment is unchanged this morning. We still think this pattern still brings timely moisture, but just not as much of it the farther out we go. At right is an updated map of cumulative 10-day rains for the region.last_img read more

Aussie Police Say Apple Maps May Be Dangerous To Your Health

first_imgdan rowinski Tags:#maps Everyone knows the first version of Apple’s iOS map application was a piece of work, but life-threatening?Lots of people are upset with Apple for replacing Google’s all-but-bulletproof mapping app with its own, disastrous Maps application back in September. Locations are mislabeled, directions are absurd, towns are shown where no town has existed. It has been frustrating for many people, but few using iOS Maps have said it is really life threatening. Until now.Screen grab from Victoria policePolice in Victoria, Australia, have fielded several distress calls from motorists following Maps only to become lost in Murray Sunset National Park. The park is located in southeastern Australia where can temperatures can reach 114 degrees (46 degrees Celsius). Motorists using Maps to get Mildura, Australia, located on the northeast border of the park. Their iPhones and iPads instead placed Mildura in the middle of Murray Sunset, miles from anything. Police say motorists insufficiently prepared to survive being lost in the sprawling park could find themselves in very real danger.In a statement, the Victoria police department said travelers should rely on other maps until the problem is fixed. Department officials said they’ve contacted Apple with their concerns. This is not the first time that a government has been upset with Maps. Irish officials were perplexed when the app moved Dublin Airport — a major facility — to a rural estate named “Airfield.” They called it “dangerously misleading.” That gaffe was fixed (but political hystrionics aside, it is extremely rare for pilots anywhere to use a smartphone for navigation). Screen grab from Victoria police. Notations by the auhor.Top photo courtesy Shutterstock. Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech …center_img Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Related Posts The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technologylast_img read more

Enhanced strength and ductility in a highentropy alloy via ordered oxygen complexes

first_img Deformation mode. a) STEM image of the TiZrHfNb base HEA at 8% tensile strain (the yellow arrows indicate the coplanar dislocation arrays). b) STEM image of O-2 HEA at 8% tensile strain (the red arrows indicate the dipolar walls). c) STEM image of N-2 HEA at 8% tensile strain (the yellow arrows indicate the planar slip bands). Typical planar slip is observed in the base HEA and in the nitrogen-doped alloy variant N-2 HEA. However, wavy slip dominates deformation of the oxygen doped variant O-2 HEA, suggesting that oxygen addition leads to a plastic deformation mode dominated by wavy slip. The beam direction in a and c is [011] while that in b is [001]. d) Dislocation spacing of the TiZrHfNb base HEA and of the interstitially doped variants O-2 and N-2 HEAs probed during in situ TEM tensile experiments. The white arrows represent the dislocation spacing. The average dislocation spacing in the O-2 HEA is much smaller than that in the base HEA and in the N-2 HEA. The error bars are standard deviations of the mean. Credit: Nature, doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0685-y Journal information: Nature To understand the underlying mechanism of this anomalous, interstitial solid-solution strengthening effect observed with oxygen doped materials, nanostructures of materials were investigated at the atomic scale. For this, the scientists first used synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the base HEA compared with the two alloy variants of O-2 and N-2 HEA. The results showed that addition of either nitrogen or oxygen to the base HEA did not change its single-phase body-centered cubic (b.c.c) structure. This observation was confirmed by electron back-scattering diffraction mapping. In the scanning transmission electron microscope high-angle annular dark field micrograph (STEM-HAADF) images of the O-2 HEA; light atoms were represented in dark contrast, while heavy atoms were imaged bright. Mechanical properties. a) Room-temperature tensile stress–strain curves for the as-cast TiZrHfNb (denoted as base alloy), (TiZrHfNb)98O2 (denoted as O-2) and (TiZrHfNb)98N2 (denoted as N-2) HEAs. σy is the yield strength (squares), σUTS is the ultimate strength (diamonds) and ε is the elongation (circles). The inset shows the corresponding strain hardening response (dσ/dε). A higher work-hardening rate is observed for the O-2 HEA variant (TiZrHfNb)98O2 compared to the base HEA TiZrHfNb and the N-2 HEA (TiZrHfNb)98N2. b) Changes in strength and ductility observed for the HEAs introduced here, relative to several types of established high-performance alloys. The reference systems are Ti6Al4V, β-Ti alloys, niobium, vanadium, interstitial free steel and 316 austenitic stainless steels. The alloys’ interstitial oxygen or nitrogen content is indicated for comparison. Credit: Nature, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0685-y Schematic diagram illustrating the mechanism of plastic deformation in the cubic structure of the oxygen-rich high-entropy alloy (HEA). a) In the oxygen-high entropy alloys, the ordered oxygen complexes (OOCs) acted on dislocations in mechanical strain studies. b) During the initial stages of plastic deformation, the planar slip still prevailed. c) Once the dislocations encountered severely distorted interstitial-enriched OOCs, cross-slip is promoted due to their strong pinning effects. d) This results in massive dislocation multiplications. e) More and more dislocations are pinned by OOCs, and dipolar walls emerged as the strain increased to promote work hardening of the material, eventually leading to higher ductility. Credit: Nature, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0685-y Researchers present new strategy for extending ductility in a single-phase alloy Engineering strong, tough (damage-tolerant) materials traditionally requires striking a compromise between hardness and ductility. In the new study, oxygen complexes were structurally ordered in nanoscale regions within the HEA characterized by oxygen, zirconium and titanium (O, Zr, Ti)-rich atomic complexes. Formation of these complexes was promoted by chemical short-range ordering among matrix elements within the HEAs. In face-centered cubic HEAs, carbon was reported to improve strength and ductility by lowering stacking fault energy and increasing lattice friction stress. By contrast, ordered interstitial complexes described by Lei et al. mediated a strain-harvesting mechanism with potential for specific use in Ti, Zr, and Hf (Hafnium)-containing alloys. Interstitial elements are usually highly undesirable in such metal alloys due to their embrittlement effects and since tuning the stacking fault energy and exploitation of thermal transfer had not previously led to property enhancement in other alloys. The novel study results therefore provided insight to the role of interstitial solid solutions and the associated mechanisms of strengthening metallic materials. The work is now published in Nature. Explore further Citation: Enhanced strength and ductility in a high-entropy alloy via ordered oxygen complexes (2018, November 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-strength-ductility-high-entropy-alloy-oxygen.html Oxygen is an abundant element that can form undesired impurities or ceramic phases in metallic materials, while doping the element on metal can render substrates brittle. During interactions with metallic alloys, oxygen takes a state between oxide particles and frequently occurring random interstitials to form ordered oxygen complexes. In a new study, materials scientists Zhinfeng Lei and co-workers observed that unlike in traditional interstitial strengthening, such ordered interstitial complexes could form high-entropy alloys (HEAs) with unprecedented enhancement in strength and ductility in compositionally complex solid solutions. When the scientists doped a model TiZrHfNb HEA with 2.0 atomic percent (2 at%) oxygen, they observed substantially enhanced tensile strength and ductility, breaking a longstanding conflict on strength and ductility trade-off. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Migraine can up heart diseases in women

first_imgThe findings showed that women with migraine have a higher risk of stroke or heart attacks than those without the condition. “Our analysis suggests that migraine should be considered  to be an important risk marker for cardiovascular disease, particularly in women,” said lead researcher Tobias Kurth, Head of the Institute of Public Health (IPH) at Charite – Universitatsmedizin Berlin, a teaching hospital in Germany.Their findings are based on an analysis of data collected as part of the US-based Nurses’ Health Study II. A team of researchers analysed data from more than 115,500 women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study II. The participants were aged between 25 and 42 years at baseline and free from cardiovascular disease and, of them, 17,531 reported a physician’s diagnosis of migraine.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Between 1989 and 2011, cardiovascular events were observed in 1,329 of these women; 223 died as a result.“The risk of developing cardiovascular events was shown to be 50 per cent higher in women with a diagnosis of migraine,” Kurth said.“When compared to women unaffected by the condition, the risk of developing a heart attack was 39 per cent higher for women with migraine, the risk of having a stroke 62 per cent higher, and that of developing angina 73 per cent higher,” Kurth explained.last_img read more

Gettin Hitched

first_img Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. December 1, 2006 Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Now Enroll Now for Free This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. 5 min read I don’t know about you, but I can’t wait for one of our nation’s last great monopolies to be subjected to free market competition. Internet protocol TV is what will finally give cable TV a real race for your money, and 2007 is the year it begins in earnest.I want my FiOS TV or DAVE.TV! I want multiple PCs connected to multiple TVs at Chez Hogan simultaneously playing news and different HBO content on my PCs, as well as PC videos, spread-sheets and e-mail on my TVs. I want to pause, play back or skip ahead in live TV programs. And before business trips, I want to use Google to fetch Gilligan’s Island episodes for my laptop.Unfortunately, this vision hasn’t come into sharp focus yet, and IPTV hasn’t reached my neighborhood. But triple-play IPTV bundles (broadband, voice and video) are available to millions of folks in communities large and small, from Boston to Pottawatomie, Oklahoma, to Beaumont, California. A potentially fruitful aspect of these deployments is a new connection between your PC network and entertainment constellation. For example, subscribe to Verizon’s FiOS triple play, and the tech installs a wireless router connected to a TV set-top box/digital video recorder that’s actually a 160GB server. It can save 120 hours of video and let you view different videos, live programming, or photos from a PC on three separate TVs.That’s just a first wobbly step toward converged PC/entertainment networks, which Parks Associates predicts will be found in 30 million American homes by 2010. Not all will include IPTV. There are thorny digital rights and regulatory issues to work out before IP becomes the lingua franca between PCs and TVs. But we’ve passed some important milestones, including super-fast internet access for a critical mass of consumers; PCs and handhelds with enough graphics and computing power to deliver quality video and audio; and big, high-resolution TV/PC flat panels available at commodity prices.More than 5 million people worldwide already subscribe to IPTV version 1.0, reports iSuppli. That number will triple in 2007. By 2010, there should be 63 million IPTV subscribers worldwide, says iSuppli vice president Mark Kirstein, about 13 million of them in the U.S.That’s not most of the viewing public by any means. But IPTV doesn’t have to supplant cable to dampen subscription rates and up the TV ante. It just has to be a viable alternative.Telecom Tuning InIronically, the main proponents of IPTV are the same telcos who’ve had their own monopolies undermined by cable competitors. AT&T and Verizon are committing billions to a last-mile fiber-optic build-out-in part to defend their best markets against cable phone offerings. But video is also the richest vein in the triple play and a brand-new way for even century-old ruraltelcos to serve less populated areas.”It’s amazing how quickly Verizon picked up 25 percent to 30 percent market share in some communities,” muses Kirstein, considering those customers were wrested from cable. Initially, IPTV providers will break in by highlighting multiscreen viewing, expanded DVR and more interactivity for prices comparable to cable. But eight separate studies have found double-digit cuts in cable rates when IPTV comes to town.The speed of deployment will depend on the outcome of a regulatory tug-o-war being fought in state houses and city councils nationwide. TV isn’t just any old free market where technology will win out. As many as 30,000 separate regulatory bodies have to give their blessing and receive their tribute.Besides expanded functionality, New TV ushers in expanded video on demand. Initially, it will be mostly the same content traditional cable pro-viders offer, says Kirstein. But cable is contractually bound to an Old TV establishment that’s conflicted about its digital rights and how many copies of what should be allowed on what platforms. The growth opportunity is not in the same mass-market content–it’s in channels narrowly focused on a particular sport, hobby, music genre or religion, says Kirstein, or foreign-language channels direct from overseas.The BBQ channel on DAVE.TV might not be your cup of sauce. But, as the MySpace/YouTube phenomenon demonstrates, there are millions of wannabe moviemakers out there. They’ll need hardware, software and services that iSuppli projects will constitute a $4.5 billion TV spinoff by 2010. And like blogs or podcasts, VOD offers a low-budget way for entrepreneurs to reach self-selecting, highly motivated customer sets.Imagine marketing to a very defined audience and supporting them with click-to-call URLs and how-to videos. The hallmarks of New TV will be more choice, more flexibility and much more interactivity between you and your customers.It won’t be your father’s TV.IPTV GuideA sampling of nationwide IPTV services:Akimbo: A $180 player and $10 a month bring an eclectic mix of 10,000 vids to your TV.AT&T U-verse: A wireless router hooked up to a set-top network lets three TVs display or record 80 hours of different traditional channels simultaneously.DAVE.TV: This content-sharing community proves anyone with a camera-phone can make movies.ITVN: A $100 player (free with a 12-month subscription at $10 per month) accesses a half-dozen reasonably priced channel packages.Verizon FiOS TV: Like AT&T U-verse, but you can record 120 hours of video and transfer PC pics and music to your TVs.Mike Hoganis Entrepreneur’s technology editor.last_img read more