Coronavirus drifts through the air in microscopic droplets – here’s the…

first_img You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Please enter your comment! Please enter your name here Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 TAGSAerosolsCoronavirusDropletsScienceThe Conversation Previous articleFlorida Realtors optimistic market disruption from COVID-19 is temporaryNext article2020 or 1320? Meet the new bartering craze Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHORcenter_img From your lungs into the air around you, aerosols carry coronavirus.Peter Dazeley/The Image Bank via Getty Images Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter The Anatomy of Fear By Shelly Miller, Professor of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering, University of Colorado BoulderDuring the 1970s when I was growing up in Southern California, the air was so polluted that I was regularly sent home from high school to “shelter in place.” There might not seem to be much in common between staying home due to air pollution and staying home to fight the coronavirus pandemic, but fundamentally, both have a lot to do with aerosols.Aerosols are the tiny floating pieces of pollution that make up Los Angeles’ famous smog, the dust particles you see floating in a ray of sunshine and also the small droplets of liquid that escape your mouth when you talk, cough or breathe. These small pieces of floating liquids can contain pieces of the coronavirus and can be major contributor to its spread.If you walk outside right now, chances are you will see people wearing masks and practicing social distancing. These actions are in large part meant to prevent people from spreading or inhaling aerosols.I am a professor of mechanical engineering and study aerosols and air pollution. The more people understand how aerosols work, the better people can avoid getting or spreading the coronavirus.Airborne and everywhereAerosols are everywhere. slobo/E+ via Getty ImagesAn aerosol is a clump of small liquid or solid particles floating in the air. They are everywhere in the environment and can be made of anything small enough to float, like smoke, water or coronavirus-carrying saliva.When a person coughs, talks or breathes, they throw anywhere between 900 to 300,000 liquid particles from their mouth. These particles range in size from microscopic – a thousandth the width of a hair – up to the size of a grain of fine beach sand. A cough can send them traveling at speeds up to 60 mph.Size of the particle and air currents affect how long they will stay in the air. In a still room, tiny particles like smoke can stay airborne for up to eight hours. Larger particles fall out of the air more quickly and land on surfaces after a few minutes.By simply being near other people, you are coming into constant contact with aerosols from their mouth. During a pandemic this a little more concerning than normal. But the important question is not do exhaled aerosols exist, rather, how infectious are they?The coronavirus is small and easily transported by airborne particles of saliva.fotograzia/Moment via Getty ImagesAerosols as virus delivery systemsThe new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is tiny, about 0.1 microns – roughly 4 millionths of an inch – in diameter. Aerosols produced by people when they breathe, talk and cough are generally between about 0.7 microns to around 10 microns – completely invisible to the naked eye and easily able to float in air. These particles are mostly biological fluids from people’s mouths and lungs and can contain bits of virus genetic material.Researchers don’t yet know how many individual pieces of SARS-CoV-2 an aerosol produced by an infected person’s cough might hold. But in one preprint study, meaning it is currently under peer review, researchers used a model to estimate that a person standing and speaking in a room could release up to 114 infectious doses per hour. The researchers predict that these aerosolized bits of saliva would easily infect other people if this happened in public indoor spaces like a bank, restaurant or pharmacy.Another thing to consider is how easy these particles are to inhale. In a recent computer model study, researchers found that people would most likely inhale aerosols from another person that is talking and coughing while sitting less than 6 feet away.While this seems bad, the actual process from exposure to infection is a complicated numbers game. Often, viral particles found in aerosols are damaged. A study looking at the flu virus found that only 0.1% of viruses exhaled by a person are actually infectious. The coronavirus also starts to die off once it has left the body, remaining viable in the air for up to three hours. And of course, not every aerosol coming from an infected person will contain the coronavirus. There is a lot of chance involved.Public health officials still don’t know whether direct contact, indirect contact through surfaces, or aerosols are the main pathway of transmission for the coronavirus. But everything experts like myself know about aerosols suggests that they could be a major pathway of transmission.Aerosol driven outbreaks have been linked to restaurants, shops and many other public places. AP Photo/Vincent YuEvidence of aerosol transmissionIt is almost impossible to study viral transmission in real time, so researchers have turned to environmental sampling and contact tracing to try to study the spread of the coronavirus in aerosols. This research is happening extremely fast and most of it is still under peer review, but these studies offer extremely interesting, if preliminary, information.To test the environment, researchers simply sample the air. In Nebraska, scientists found airborne SARS-CoV-2 in a hospital. In China, scientists also found the virus in the air of a number of hospitals as well as a department store.But environmental sampling alone cannot prove aerosol transmission. That requires contact tracing.One restaurant in Guangzhou, China, was the site of a small outbreak on Jan. 23 and offers direct evidence of aerosol transmission. Researchers believe that there was one infected but asymptomatic person sitting at a table in the restaurant. Because of the air currents circulating in the room due to air conditioning, people sitting at two other tables became infected, likely because of aerosols.Overall, the evidence suggests that it is much more risky to be inside than outside. The reason is the lack of airflow. It takes between 15 minutes and three hours for an aerosol to be sucked outside by a ventilation system or float out an open window.Another preprint study of outbreaks in Japan suggests that the chances of direct transmission are almost 20 times higher indoors compared to outdoors. In Singapore, researchers traced the first three outbreaks directly to a few shops, a banquet dinner and a church.Once outside, these potentially infectious aerosols disappear in the expanse of the atmosphere and are much less of a worry. It is of course possible to catch the virus outside if you are in close contact with a sick person, but this seems very rare. Researchers in China found that only one of 314 outbreaks they examined could be traced back to outdoor contact.There has been recent concern over aerosol transmission during running and biking. While the science is still developing on this, it is probably wise to give other bikers or runners a little more room than normal.Wearing masks and social distancing reduce the risk of spreading or inhaling aerosols.AP Photo/Gerald HerbertHow to reduce aerosol transmissionWith all of this knowledge of how aerosols are produced, how they move and the role they play in this pandemic, an obvious question arises: what about masks?The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends wearing a face mask in any public setting where social distancing is hard to do. This is because homemade masks probably do a reasonable job of blocking aerosols from leaving your mouth. The evidence generally supports their use and more research is coming to show that masks can be very effective at reducing SARS-CoV-2 in air. Masks aren’t perfect, [and not all masks are the same in their effectiveness quotient; ie, a single layer, cloth mask will be much less effective than a layered cloth mask with a barrier insert, but that will be less effective than an N95 mask], and more studies are currently underway to learn how effective they really are, but taking this small precaution could help slow the pandemic.Other than wearing a mask, follow common sense and the guidance of public health officials. Avoid crowded indoor spaces as much as possible. Practice social distancing both inside and outdoors. Wash your hands frequently. All of these things work to prevent the spread of the coronavirus and can help keep you from getting it. There is a significant amount of evidence that COVID-19 is transmitted by the inhalation of airborne particles, but by carefully following the advice of experts, individuals can minimize the risk they pose.This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.last_img read more

Pasadena Senior Center Fourth of July Celebration and Dance will be Virtual on Zoom

first_img STAFF REPORT First Heatwave Expected Next Week 17 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Don your favorite red, white and blue apparel, set out your picnics, display patriotic decorations and clear some dancing space: The Pasadena Senior Center’s Fourth of July celebration will be virtual this year via Zoom Thursday, July 4, from noon to 1:30 p.m.Music for dancing featuring classic, toe-tapping tunes will be provided by the Great American Swing Band. Special appearances by The Tap Chicks and the color guard of San Marino Scout Troop #351 will round out the festivities.The cost is free for members of the Pasadena Senior Center and only $5 for non-members of all ages.To register or for more information, visit www.pasadenaseniorcenter.org and click on Lectures and Events, then Online Events. Everyone who registers will receive email instructions for joining the festivities online. The virtual Zoom doors will open at 11:45 a.m.For more information about other Pasadena Senior Center programs and services, including online options for classes, events and activities during the COVID-19 crisis, visit www.pasadenaseniorcenter.org or call (626) 795-4331.The center, at 85 E. Holly St., is an independent, donor-supported nonprofit organization that has been deemed an essential service provider for older adults by the city of Pasadena, so its doors remain open six days a week for social services and other assistance to older adults in need. Hours during this period are Mondays through Fridays from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Top of the News Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  Make a comment Business News CITY NEWS SERVICE/STAFF REPORT Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Subscribe More Cool Stuffcenter_img Community News Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Donald CommunityPCC- COMMUNITYVirtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPasadena Public WorksPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Community News Pasadena Senior Center Fourth of July Celebration and Dance will be Virtual on Zoom STAFF REPORT Published on Wednesday, June 24, 2020 | 3:05 pm Herbeauty7 Reasons Why The Lost Kilos Are Regained AgainHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThese Lipsticks Are Designed To Make Your Teeth Appear Whiter!HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty9 Of The Best Family Friendly Dog BreedsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty7 Most Startling Movie Moments We Didn’t Realize Were InsensitiveHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty6 Strong Female TV Characters Who Deserve To Have A SpinoffHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty10 Brutally Honest Reasons Why You’re Still SingleHerbeautyHerbeauty STAFF REPORT Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Community News Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenalast_img read more

Ween Announces New Summer Tour Dates

first_imgWeen will return to the road in late July for a series of tour dates in the Ohio and Northeast. The outing will come roughly seven weeks after the band’s June run through Missouri and Colorado’s Red Rocks Amphitheatre.Ween will get started at Cleveland’s Agora Theatre on July 24th before swinging through Express Live in Columbus, Ohio, the next night on July 25th. Next up will be Stage AE in Pittsburgh on July 27th, with dates at Buffalo’s Art Park on July 28th and Burlington, VT’s Waterfront Park on July 29th closing out the run.Pre-sale tickets for the newly-announced shows will go on sale Wednesday, April 4th, at 10 a.m. ET (use password “GUAVA”). Tickets will be available to the general public at 10 a.m. ET on Friday, April 6th.Ween Summer Tour Dates6/2 Saint Louis, MO – The Pageant6/3 Kansas City, MO – Midland Theatre6/5 Morrison, CO – Red Rocks Amphitheatre6/6 Morrison, CO – Red Rocks Amphitheatre7/24 Agora Theatre – Cleveland, OH*7/25 Express Live – Columbus, OH*7/27 Stage AE – Pittsburgh, PA*7/28 Art Park – Buffalo, NY*7/29 Waterfront Park – Burlington, VT** newly-announced datelast_img read more

Schafroth wins again at Stuart

first_imgSchafroth took the lead from Jeremy Gettler on lap four; second-running Todd VanEaton exited with mechanical issues on the 11th circuit, with Mike Nichols moving up to challenge.  Buck Schafroth raced to another IMCA Sunoco Stock Car victory at Stuart Speedway Thursday night. (Photo by Jim Zimmerline) The race went green from there and Schafroth had his hands full as Nichols worked high and low trying to find a way around. After taking the white flag, Nichols seemed to set up a move down the backstretch and into turn three, but his car went up on two wheels in turn three and his shot at the win was over. STUART, Iowa (May 2) – Buck Schafroth was back in victory lane following Thursday’s IMCA Sunoco Stock Car feature at Stuart Speedway. Schafroth took the exciting victory with 17th starting Shawn Ritter sneaking by Nichols for second. By Josh Reynolds Shannon Anderson topped an IMCA Sunoco Hobby Stock feature that ran caution-free and Tyler Inman followed the lower line to the Karl Kustoms Northern SportMod checkers.last_img read more

After Metalist, Sarajevo won against Partizan by 1:0

first_imgSarajevo won against Partizan from Belgrade in the second friendly match in Antalya with the score of 1:0. Leon Benko scored the only goal in 89th minute.In the dynamic match, election players by Meho Kodro showed an attractive game.In the next part of the match BiH Cup winner played in a more concrete manner. Okic hitted the goal frame in 70th minute, while Rustemovic was imprecise four minutes later.However, after the shot from Radovac, Benko conducted one rebounded ball into the goal for the big win for BH team. It is important to recall that same rivals played friendly match last year. In that match, club from Serbia won.Of course, Sarajevo showed in the first two friendly matches in Turkey that it can count on the success in further BH Championship.(Source: klix.ba)last_img