Moons of our planetary system are supposed to behave themselves. They were expected to just quietly orbit their host planets like nice, cold, frozen, inactive chunks of rock and ice. It seems like whenever we get a close look at them, they are madly at work destroying theories – just like their planets have been wont to do.Io, Io, It’s Off to Work I Go: “The results are surprising because no theory predicted upstream spots.” Belgian researcher Bertrand Bonford was commenting on a press release from American Geophysical Union (AGU) about the volcanic moon Io, and how its eruptions create auroral spots on Jupiter. “The finding of the leading spot puts all the previous models of the Io footprint into question,” the article said.Tethys Ocean: The “surprisingly ordinary” moon Tethys at Saturn may have, or may have had, an underground ocean, according to National Geographic News. The energy required to create the monstrous rift called Ithaca Chasma must have melted the ice below. Where did the heat come from? Since Tethys is largely ice, there would not have been radioactive elements sufficient to produce internal heat. This leaves tidal flexing to create the rift – but only if there was liquid underneath. The thought of water quickly led to thoughts of life. A Cassini scientist told NGN, “This makes the exploration of icy satellites and their interiors even more important to understanding possible habitats for life in our solar system” and for how common life is in the universe.Do you want your Mars with salt? Sodium chloride – good old table salt – may be common on Mars, said the BBC News and EurekAlert. Because the salt may have become deposited in channels and lakes, some scientists immediately visualized the salt as a preservative for life. Salt is a double-edged sword, however: “Water is the first sign that an environment might have been habitable, but waters that precipitate table salt on Mars would have been much saltier than any waters known to support microbial populations on Earth,” said Andrew Knoll of Harvard. Salt is also a poison to organic soup (09/17/2002).Titan clash: Titan isn’t rotating like scientists expected. When they went to focus on a spot identified from a previous orbit, it was 19 miles off. The only way they can explain it is by modeling an ocean under the ice, according to a paper in Science.1 If the crust is decoupled from the interior by floating on an ocean, it also means that Titan’s zonal winds can alter the rotation of the whole moon. See explanation by The Planetary Society and press release from JPL. The ocean-and-wind hypothesis is only a partial answer. Christophe Sotin and Gabriel Tobie, writing in the same issue of Science,2 said, “However, the observations and model predictions do not correlate very well.” Some are proposing a periodic wobble in the spin, or a large impact that might have sped up the rotation. No impact basin large enough to record such an event has been found. “There’s a fundamental difficulty with Titan global circulation models right now — all of them,” said lead author Ralph Lorenz, “–which is that they predict that the predominant winds at low latitudes near the surface would be easterly, from east to west. Yet all the sand dunes point in exactly the opposite direction. There’s something we do not understand about Titan’s circulation.”Back on earth, scientists are also scrambling to explain the origin of the home planet. Science Daily, PhysOrg and National Geographic News all reported that a “new study is challenging the long-standing notion that the whole solar system formed from the same raw materials.” Isotopes in meteorites don’t match those on earth. To get around this problem, scientists are having to imagine that materials in the solar disk that supposedly gave birth to the planets got sorted somehow. In addition, a news item in Nature News about the Genesis solar-wind collection experiment “raises more questions.” The finding that “the Sun is relatively richer than Earth in oxygen-16, the most common oxygen isotope, contradicts the conventional wisdom that Earth has the same oxygen isotope composition as the Sun” the article said. “Everybody would have bet that the Sun had the same composition as Earth and the meteorites,” a French cosmochemist remarked. “In fact, Earth is not like the Sun.” Scientists are scrambling to model what process might have “sucked out oxygen-16 while the gas of the proto-Solar System condensed into solid grains that coalesced into the planets.” If so, the article said, it would have had to happen early on.Footnote: We’re still waiting for word about the Enceladus flyby results from March 12. Expect more surprises. Whatever is found will have to comport with findings of Roberts and Nimmo in the April Icarus.3 Their calculations show that neither radioactive decay or tidal forcing are adequate to maintain a liquid ocean under the crust for more than 30 million years (6% of the assumed age). Heat is removed from the surface faster than it can be generated in the core, and tidal heating is far too low at the present orbit. The only way they could rescue a long-lived ocean was to propose an ad-hoc scenario: perhaps the obliquity of Enceladus is pumped up from time to time. “A transient ocean could exist beneath the ice shell today as a remnant of an earlier epoch of higher heating,” they said. Such a phenomenon is beyond observation.1. Lorenz et al, “Titan’s Rotation Reveals an Internal Ocean and Changing Zonal Winds,” Science, 21 March 2008: Vol. 319. no. 5870, pp. 1649-1651, DOI: 10.1126/science.1151639.2. Sotin and Tobie, “Titan’s Hidden Ocean,” Science, 21 March 2008: Vol. 319. no. 5870, pp. 1629-1630, DOI: 10.1126/science.1155964.3. James H. Roberts and Francis Nimmo, “Tidal heating and the long-term stability of a subsurface ocean on Enceladus,” Icarus, Volume 194, Issue 2, April 2008, Pages 675-689, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.11.010.Science marches on – sometimes in disciplined ranks, sometimes in scatter formation. The latter occurs when observation bombs drop in on theory playgrounds. Remember, the consensus theories that have been blown away by new discoveries were textbook orthodoxy a few years ago. Only a devout logical positivist would think this could not happen to today’s accepted ideas. Just wait. Evidence does not exist in isolation. To make sense, it must be incorporated into one’s web of belief by a number of auxiliary hypotheses and assumptions. Planetary scientists interpret what Ithaca Chasma, Titan’s rotation and Earth’s oxygen-16 ratios mean through the filter of assumptions and auxiliary hypotheses that are rarely considered or questioned independently. One of their most sacred assumptions is the A.S.S. (age of the solar system). The accepted value of 4.5 billion years is written in their genes. All evidence is viewed within this major structural component of their web of belief. The web itself stretches and distorts as new evidence bombards it, but it would take a mighty big impact to break it. Too much is at stake for secular planetologists, bent on finding life and evolution at every water hole, to allow that to happen. Like predatory spiders, they snag the evidence, wrap it in theories spun out of their own selves, and suck the juice out of it to feed themselves and their young. The dried up hulk that once contained structure, organs and connective tissue is discarded to blow away in the wind. If you love and respect science, make like a bee instead. Get busy and gather nature’s nectar far and wide. Digest it carefully. Transform it into something sweet to benefit others – something that will nourish the heart and bring delight to the eyes. (Thanks to Francis Bacon for the metaphor.)(Visited 30 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
A guide to South Africa’s commercial radio stations, which includes what each offers, what frequency to tune into and where the broadcasting areas are.South Africa’s commercial radio stations include Metro FM, Jacaranda FM and Kaya FM. (Image: Jacaranda FM, Facebook)Brand South Africa reporterUnder apartheid, South Africa had only two independent radio stations. With the deregulation of broadcasting in the late 1990s, the number of commercial stations operating outside of state control proliferated.In 1996 six lucrative SABC stations were privatised: Gauteng’s 947 and Radio Jacaranda, KwaZulu-Natal’s East Coast Radio, the Western Cape’s KFM 94.5, the Eastern Cape’s Radio Algoa and the Free State’s OFM. The government raised over R500-million as the stations were licensed to various black-controlled groups.In early 1997 eight new commercial radio licences were granted for broadcasting in South Africa’s three biggest cities – Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban.Applicants targeting black audiences with new formats were generally favoured, with two “smooth jazz” licences, Heart 104.9 in Cape Town and Igagasi 99.5 in Durban; one urban youth station, YFM; and one urban contemporary station, Kaya FM. The remaining four licences went to an English-language talk station, CapeTalk 567; two Afrikaans talk stations, Punt in Cape Town and Durban; and a classical music station, Classic FM.Metro FMBroadcast in English, Metro FM is the largest national commercial station in South Africa, targeting 25- to 34-year-old black urban adults – who its owner the SABC describes as “trendy, innovative, progressive and aspirational”. While the station does have some information and educational aspects, the focus is firmly on contemporary international music – hip-hop, R&B, kwaito and more.Frequency: 96.4 FMMetro FM websiteBroadcast area: Metropolitan areas of Gauteng, Limpopo, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape, Western CapeAudience (past seven days): 5.26-millionLanguage: EnglishOffers live internet audioJacaranda FMOne of the largest independent commercial stations and also broadcasting in Gauteng, Jacaranda offers a mix of more easy-listening adult contemporary music and news.Frequency: 94.2 FMJacaranda FM websiteBroadcast area: GautengAudience (past seven days): 2.32-millionLanguage: EnglishOffers live internet audioEast Coast RadioEast Coast broadcasts a mix of music and news to Durban and throughout KwaZulu-Natal.Frequency: 94 to 95 FMEast Coast radio websiteBroadcast area: KwaZulu-NatalAudience (past seven days): 2.06-millionLanguage: EnglishOffers live internet audioYfmHome of Kwaito and the “Y Generation”, Y is the country’s most popular youth station. Yfm has a self-imposed 50% local music quota – more than any other radio station in the country. It works in partnership with New York-based Masters At Work, who have released SA artists into the US and Europe as part of YFM’s ongoing commitment to South African music and culture.Frequency: 99.2 FMYFM websiteBroadcast area: GautengAudience (past seven days): 1.34-millionLanguage: EnglishOffers live internet audio5FMThe SABC’s trendy youth-oriented station, 5FM’s emphasis is on the latest music, movies and South African youth trends. Broadcasting in English to South Africa’s metropolitan areas, its music styles are international, and include a strong component of South African artists of world standard.Frequency: see the 5FM frequency finder5FM websiteBroadcast area: Metropolitan areas of Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western CapeAudience (past seven days): 1.32-millionLanguage: EnglishOffers live internet audio947 (previously known as 94.7 Highveld Stereo)Popular home of Anele’s Breakfast Club, 947 broadcasts a mix of contemporary music that connects with Joburg. It is owned by Primedia Broadcasting.Frequency: 94.7 FM947 websiteBroadcast area: GautengAudience (past seven days): 1.18-millionLanguage: EnglishOwned by: PrimediaKaya FMKaya FM provides an African-focused adult contemporary and jazz format, with a mix of music and talk. One of the country’s newest radio stations, Kaya broadcasts throughout Gauteng.Frequency: 95.9 FMKaya FM websiteBroadcast area: GautengAudience (past seven days): 932 000Language: EnglishOffers live internet audioGood Hope FMCape Town’s largest radio station, the SABC’s Good Hope FM plays contemporary music ranging from R&B, ballads and pop through to hip hop, dance, jazz and old school. With a broadcast footprint covering metropolitan Cape Town, Langebaan, Malmesbury, Wellington, Paarl, Franchhoek, Stellenbosch and Gordon’s Bay, it targets the 22- to 32-year-old age group.Frequency: 93.9 to 96.7 FMGood Hope FM websiteBroadcast area: Western CapeAudience (past seven days): 620 000Language: EnglishOffers live internet audioAlgoa FMAlgoa FM’s music and news is broadcast to the entire Eastern Cape region.Frequency: 94 to 96.7 FMAlgoa FM websiteBroadcast area: Eastern CapeAudience (past seven days): 448 000Language: EnglishOffers live internet audio702702 is Gauteng’s number-one current affairs and information station, offering news, sport, business and actuality programming – and lots of phone-in debate. Established in 1980, it was initially a youth music station, moving to the more adult talk format in 1988. During the apartheid era it was one of the only independent sources of broadcast news. The station is owned by Primedia.Frequency: 92.7 FM702 websiteBroadcast area: GautengAudience (past seven days): 281 000Language: EnglishOffers live internet audioCapeTalk 567Broadcasting on Medium Wave 567, CapeTalk is Cape Town’s first talk radio station. CapeTalk promises to bring you all the news, views, sport, weather, traffic and information you need. It is owned by Primedia.Frequency: 567 AM (MW)CapeTalk 567 websiteBroadcast area: Western CapeAudience (past seven days): 82 000Language: EnglishOffers live internet audioClassic FMBased on the UK station, Classic FM has been broadcasting classical music throughout Gauteng since September 1997. Through their partnership with Business Day, the station offers in-depth business coverage each week night from 6pm. There are also lifestyle features, news, financial updates, sport, and interviews with local artists and composers.Frequency: 102.7 FMClassic FM websiteBroadcast area: GautengAudience (past seven days): 151 000Language: EnglishOffers live internet audioKfm 94.5With the tagline “The most music. Feel Great”, Kfm 94.5 broadcasts adult contemporary music in the Western Cape and as far afield as Alexander Bay and the Northern Cape. It is owned by Primedia.Frequency: 94.5 FMKfm 94.5 websiteBroadcast area: Western Cape, Northern CapeAudience (past seven days): 1.29-millionLanguage: EnglishOffers live internet audioOFMThe commercial regional station of the Free State (a province with the name Orange Free State before 1994, hence the O), OFM broadcasts adult contemporary music.Frequency: 94 to 97 FMOFM websiteBroadcast area: Free StateAudience (past seven days): 436 000Language: English and AfrikaansOffers live internet audioRadio 2000To the listener, Radio 2000 is a laid back and non-intrusive radio station. Radio 2000, being a facility station, relies heavily on sports broadcasts. The result is that its listenership fluctuates, since it is often based on national and international sports events.Frequency: 97.2 to 100.2 FMRadio 2000 websiteBroadcast area: All provinces, except the Northern CapeAudience (past seven days): 151 000Language: EnglishChannel AfricaThe international radio service of the SABC offers a multilingual source of information on Africa – with news, music and sports. Broadcasts are in Chinyanja, Silozi, Kiswahili, English, French and Portuguese, with shortwave broadcasts covering south, east, central and west Africa, satellite broadcasts covering the sub-Saharan region – and internet broadcasts covering the entire world.Frequency: see the Channel Africa frequency guideChannel Africa websiteBroadcast area: south, east, central and west Africa (shortwave)Language: English, Chinyanja, Silozi, Kiswahili, French and PortugueseOffers live internet audioUseful linksAnt RadioBroadcasting Complaints Commission of South AfricaDepartment of CommunicationsFreedom of Expression InstituteInstitute for the Advancement of JournalismWits JournalismMedia Development and Diversity AgencyMedia Institute of Southern AfricaNational Association of BroadcastersNational Community Radio ForumPrimediaSouth African Audience Research FoundationSouth African Broadcasting CorporationSouth African National Editors ForumWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
27 January 2014Business and political thought-leaders from Africa, Australia, North America and the UK will headline the 20th annual Investing in African Mining Indaba, taking place at the Cape Town International Convention Centre from 3 to 6 February.Mining Indaba’s “legendary robust discussions and access to industry game-changers” are expected to attract approximately 8 000 delegates this year, according to the organisers. About half the delegates are likely to be from Africa, with the rest coming from Europe, Australia, the Americas and Asia.The event will feature more than a dozen keynote speakers and over 50 sessions on investment opportunities and the leading mining companies across the African mining value chain.“This reflects accelerated mining interest around the African continent and underlines the essence of the Mining Indaba – this is where the world really connects with African mining,” event managing director Jonathan Moore said in a recent statement.South African Mineral Resources Minister Susan Shabangu will deliver the welcoming address, while Eleni Gabre-Madhin, founder of the Ethiopia Commodity Exchange and recently named one of the 100 Most Influential Africans, heads up an impressive list of keynote speakers.Colin Barnett, Western Australia’s minister for state development, will focus on win-win mining scenarios for investors, mining companies and governments. Canadian consultant Phil Newman, CEO of CRU Strategies, will discuss the changing face of world mineral supply. And Paul Collier, director of the Centre for the Study of African Economies at Oxford University, will discuss mining and sustainable development.Makhtar Diop’s keynote address will be informed by his World Bank experience, currently as vice-president for the Africa region.Keynote panels will tackle themes such as the current status and future outlook for African mining and the impact of Asian growth on African mining. Participating in both topics will be Frank Holmes, adviser on sustainable development to the William J Clinton Foundation, and David Hale, a Chicago-based economist renowned for his global market research and insights.SAinfo reporter
Essential Reading! Get my 2nd book: The Lost Art of Closing “In The Lost Art of Closing, Anthony proves that the final commitment can actually be one of the easiest parts of the sales process—if you’ve set it up properly with other commitments that have to happen long before the close. The key is to lead customers through a series of necessary steps designed to prevent a purchase stall.” Buy Now The time to protest a war is before it begins. If you disagree with the war on whatever grounds, you should call your Congressman, write the President, and march in the street holding up signs. You should make your voice heard (and as loudly as possible). That is your right and your duty.But once the war has begun, the time for protest is over. You have to support the decision and work to end it as quickly as possible (something we in the United States aren’t at all very good at). The decision is made, and the soldiers in harms way require your support to complete their missions. Protests only show a weak resolve, poor intestinal fortitude, and increase the horror of war.Today is a day to remember heroes who did what their country asked of them. And more.The soldiers who served and died didn’t want to go to war. They wanted to be home with their families. But they did what we asked of them.The soldiers who served and died didn’t want to put themselves in harm’s way. But that was their duty, and their honor and their responsibility required it of them. So they marched into the fray.The soldiers who made the ultimate sacrifice didn’t want to make that sacrifice. They didn’t want the medals. They didn’t want their family to receive a flag in their place. But they gave all.The soldiers that we lost gave themselves out of the love they had for the soldiers standing next to them and out of the duty they had to their country.You are a beneficiary of their sacrifice. Be grateful to the heroes who were asked to do the unthinkable and did so out of duty, honor, and the love of their country. Your country.