President Bush Votes Yes on ID

first_imgAsked whether ID was a valid alternative to evolution, President Bush told reporters August 1, “Both sides ought to be properly taught … so people can understand what the debate is about…. Part of education is to expose people to different schools of thought.  You’re asking me whether or not people ought to be exposed to different ideas, and the answer is yes.”  According to Answers in Genesis, Bush’s science advisor John Marburger tried to soften this statement by claiming that evolution is the cornerstone of biology.  Regardless, the Discovery Institute commended the president for his stance.  See Fox News for the context of the remarks.  Science magazine took note, quoting the director of the Biodiversity Research Center at the University of Kansas, who said that if Bush wanted to promote ID as an alternative to evolution, “that would be a terrible mistake.”  On the other side, David Limbaugh, in an editorial on TownHall.com, thought the anti-ID folks were making the mistake.  The remarks caused enough notice to make the cover of Time Magazine.Update 08/04/2005: On Breakpoint August 4, Chuck Colson also praised President Bush for his position, then added some interesting new information about the former atheist Antony Flew (see 12/09/2004 story).  Colson met Flew in Oxford last week and verified that ID had shaken Flew’s evolutionary beliefs.  Then, Colson posed a follow-up question that made Flew admit it was a provocative point worthy of thought: “He [Flew] could prove theism was the only philosophically sustainable position, but he could not prove who God was.  I said, ‘If you could prove who God was, you could not love God—which is the principle object of life.”  Whether further reflection on that question will move Flew from atheist to deist to Biblical theist is a story in progress.Predictably, the usual heathen (NCSE, ACLU, AUSCS, etc.) beat their voodoo drums over the president’s remarks.  Who will heed the call, and send missionaries to these tribes, lost in darkness and ignorance?  We want to hear Antony Flew respond, “Here am I: send me.”(Visited 5 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Plant Lignin Found in Red Algae

first_imgTime to rewrite the textbooks again.  The story of plant evolution is wrong.  Lignin, a chemical that gives wood its stiffness, was thought to be unique to land plants.  Now it has been found in red algae, reported Science Daily, with the title, “Billion-year Revision Of Plant Evolution Timeline May Stem From Discovery Of Lignin In Seaweed.”  This story illustrates that anything is possible in evolutionary biology these days.    According to evolutionists, red algae emerged much earlier than land plants.  How are they going to explain a complex molecule, which is manufactured by a complex process, being found in a more “primitive” life form?  “Because red and green algae likely diverged more than a billion years ago, the discovery of lignin in red algae suggests that the basic machinery for producing lignin may have existed long before algae moved to land.”  But that just seems to restate the problem.  The alternative, though, is even harder to swallow: “Alternatively, algae and land plants may have evolved the identical compound independently, after they diverged.”    The independent evolution of an identical compound in unrelated lines is tantamount to a miracle.  Look what Mark Denny of Stanford said about this: “The pathways, enzymes and genes that go into making this stuff are pretty complicated, so to come up with all those separately would be really, really amazing,”says Denny.  “Anything is possible, but that would be one hell of a coincidence.”Paper View: Denny’s statement warranted a further look at the original paper in Current Biology.1  Sure enough, the only two options were evolutionary, and neither was unproblematic.  “The discovery of polymerized hydroxycinnamyl alcohols (lignin) within the cell walls of a red alga has major evolutionary implications,” they said in a tone of understatement.  Either the ability to synthesize lignin emerged in a single-celled ancestor (with no need for the sturdiness of plant stems), or it emerged by convergent evolution in unrelated lineages.  “Because monolignol synthesis is exceptionally complex, it seems unlikely that Calliarthron [the red alga] and terrestrial plants evolved monolignol biosynthesis and polymerization completely independently,” they confessed (see 05/30/2008, bullet 2).  Why, then, did the title of their paper say this “reveals convergent evolution of cell-wall architecture”?  Perhaps there is a way to get the best of both explanations.  “It seems more likely that relevant pathways, such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and polymerization by peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation, may be deeply conserved, having evolved prior to the divergence of red and green algae more than 1 billion years ago.”  If so, “we may expect to find conserved enzymatic pathways and, potentially, evidence of lignification among the multitude of evolutionary intermediates.”  The search is on.    Nevertheless, they did entertain the possibility that red algae and land plants converged on the highly-complex lignin pathways independently.  For support, they pointed to one other case of convergent evolution in lignin synthesis: “For example, angiosperms and the lycopod Selaginella synthesize S lignin via distinct and independently evolved cytochrome-P450-dependent monooxygenases, and production of S lignin in Calliarthron may reflect a third convergent pathway.”  This seems to beg the question that they evolved.  Perhaps two improbabilities are better than one, and three better than two.  Since nothing but evolution is allowed in the explanation, though, those are the choices.  Maybe imagining other uses for lignin in microbes will help:Lignins are thought to have evolved in the green algal lineage as adaptations to terrestrial habitats, facilitating hydraulic transport and contributing to the mechanical stability of upright stems.  However, contrary to the current paradigm, our data indicate that H, G, and S lignins exist within a red alga’s calcified cells that lack hydraulic vasculature and have little need for additional support.  We speculate that lignin biosynthetic pathways may have functioned in the common unicellular ancestor of red and green algae, protecting cells from microbial infection or UV radiation, and in Calliarthron, lignins may orient the fibrillar scaffolding that guides CaCO3 deposition.While we’re speculating, let’s imagine more with the long leash of evolutionary thinking.  There may have been other needs within brainless microbes that provided opportunities for evolutionary invention via “selective pressure.”The presence of G lignin within the secondary walls of peripheral genicular cells may represent convergent evolution of cellular architecture in response to mechanical stress, given that G lignins also concentrate within secondary walls of terrestrial plant fibers.  Selective pressures in the marine environment differ from those on land, but the wind-induced drag forces that presumably contributed to the evolution of wood in terrestrial plants are mirrored by flow-induced drag forces on aquatic algae.  On land, xylem lends mechanical support to erect stems, and in water, genicula provide mechanical support to Calliarthron fronds.  As articulated fronds bend back and forth under breaking waves, bending stresses are amplified within peripheral genicular tissue, which develops thick secondary walls, apparently to resist breakage…. We hypothesize that this putative 3- to 5-fold upregulation of lignin biosynthesis in peripheral genicular cells may be mechanically stimulated by bending stresses imposed by breaking waves.  Similar mechanical on/off switches for lignin accumulation have been noted in terrestrial systems: plants grown in microgravity synthesize less lignin, whereas plants grown in hypergravity synthesize more lignin.  The mechanical consequences of such minute quantities of lignin on genicular material properties may be negligible.  Nevertheless, that genicular tissue contains lignin and is also stronger, stiffer, and yet more extensible than other algal tissues is an intriguing coincidence, and lignin’s potential role in these properties is an area of active research.Their reasoning leaves out a key question.  Their evidence refers only to spots where lignin accumulates in response to mechanical stress.  How did it get there in the first place?  What does accumulation have to do with the origin of the lignin synthesis machinery?  They didn’t say.  The argument merely hints that an applied stress will somehow produce the goods.  Necessity is the mother of invention.    Having earlier admitted that lignin synthesis is “exceptionally complex,” it is perhaps surprising to hear them land on the side of convergent evolution in their concluding paragraph.  Their last sentence included overt teleological language:Convergent evolution of cell structure and development in Calliarthron genicula and terrestrial xylem may clarify lignin biosynthesis and lend insight into the early evolution of land plants.  It is striking that Calliarthron contains lignified cell walls but evolved from calcified ancestors that lacked water-conducting tracheids or vessels.  Vascular plants may have realized hydraulic transport by tapping into ancient biosynthetic pathways that initially evolved to fortify unicellular walls and were later adapted to provide biomechanical support.With funding from the National Science Foundation, Patrick Martone (co-author with Denny) is continuing work on this surprising discovery.  Science Daily ended, “Martone says the research team has started looking for billion-year-old lignin genes that might be shared among land plants and red algae, and has started exploring whether lignin exists in other aquatic algae and what role it plays in the evolution and function of aquatic plants.”1.  Martone, Estevez, Lu, Ruel, Denny, Somerville and Ralph, “Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell-Wall Architecture,” Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 2, 27 January 2009, Pages 169-175, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.031.Darwinism is supposed to be this law-governed, enlightened, mechanistic, scientific theory that gives rational explanations for observed phenomena in nature.  Pray tell, what is the difference between their evolutionary explanation and that of a shaman?  We have just seen these scientists invoke spirits.  They called on the spirit of convergent evolution, the spirit of Tinker Bell, and the spirit of vascular plants tapping into ancient biosynthetic pathways that “initially evolved to fortify” cell walls of microbes.  These purpose-driven spirits produced lignin biosynthesis machinery on demand, just because of environmental stress.  Miraculous (see 03/25/2003).  “Anything is possible,” Denny said.  At least Christians have a sufficient Cause when they say, “With God, all things are possible.”    When you learn to look past the big words and identify the key passages in a scientific paper, it’s like taking your gaze off the Wizard of Oz act and pulling up the curtain where the charlatan is hiding.  A theory that says “anything can happen,” even coincidences that are “really, really amazing” can explain anything.  Is this enlightened?  Is this progressive?  Is this rational?  No matter what the observations, the Darwin Party has carte blanche to say “It evolved, because stuff happens” (09/15/2008).  To get really disgusted, read how the Astrobiology Magazine spun this finding in to a positive for evolution!  “The team’s finding provides a new perspective on the early evolution of lignified support tissues – such as wood – on land, since the seaweed tissues that are most stressed by waves crashing on shore appear to contain the most lignin, possibly contributing to mechanical support, says Martone.”  This is why we really need to end the one-party rule in science.  The Darwinists have done nothing to stop the rampant, blatant, out-of-control identity theft (05/02/2003) and credit fraud (08/24/2007) that is damaging the public trust (12/18/2002).(Visited 371 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

CeXin Women’s Fashion Pink Weave Cosplay Wigs Gradual Color : not sure if it is the same as the picture but still a good wig and I am happy with my purchase

first_imgJust right for my larp character. Nice thick hair and came tangle free, fits well, only thing is that the 2 strands fall directly down on your face, but nothing a bew bobby pins wont fix. So pleased with the purchase and delivery was very prompt. Good value fun cosplay wig look forward to wearing it surprisingly full and good colour toowould reccomend. Absolutely love this wig looks great and feels amazing when on, will be buying more, can’t foult the item or the service. Amazing for the moneyReally nice fancy dressArrived in good time.Women’s Fashion Pink Blue Weave Cosplay Wigs Gradual ColorMaterial: Synthetic High Temp Fiber,,color deviation may happen due to different monitor setting.Length:Long Color:Blend Pink Blue Package:1*wig+Hair CapWith this hair wig, you can attend Halloween, party, cosplay, and any other occasions, something to make you more attractive.When you receive the new product, please take it out and wash it, and then use it thank you!Any question could you please contact with us we will solve it in 24 hours thank you! This wig is absolutely amazing. Lots of fun and very comfortable to wear. Amazing for the money, comes with a hair net and the wig looks just like the picture, has secure fit and doesn’t come off easy. Amazing for the money, comes with a hair net and the wig looks just like the picture, has secure fit and doesn’t come off easy. Bought for tinkerbell dress up, looked very good. Bought for tinkerbell dress up, looked very good. Good quality and excellent colour went well with my halloween costume. A bit disappointed with this wig – the fringe is great. A bit disappointed with this wig – the fringe is great, but there’s a strange layering with the slightly longer purple bits round the front and the curls are very different than pictured. Mostly disappointed because i can’t get it to stay on my head – even with a wig cap on it keeps popping off after just a few minutes. Love this wig, it totally represents my personality haha. Absolutely love this wig looks great and feels amazing when on, will be buying more, can’t foult the item or the service. Not sure if it is the same as the picture but still a good wig and i am happy with my purchase. The wig came reasonably quick, i was worried as i had brought this as part of a halloween costume and luckily it came before then. The only problem i have with this product is that the top of the wig is really thick, yet at the bottom its quite thin, not sure if it is the same as the picture but still a good wig and i am happy with my purchase. Not sure if it is the same as the picture but still a good wig and i am happy with my purchase. The wig came reasonably quick, i was worried as i had brought this as part of a halloween costume and luckily it came before then. The only problem i have with this product is that the top of the wig is really thick, yet at the bottom its quite thin, not sure if it is the same as the picture but still a good wig and i am happy with my purchase. A bit disappointed with this wig – the fringe is great. A bit disappointed with this wig – the fringe is great, but there’s a strange layering with the slightly longer purple bits round the front and the curls are very different than pictured. Mostly disappointed because i can’t get it to stay on my head – even with a wig cap on it keeps popping off after just a few minutes. Love this wig, it totally represents my personality haha. Nice thick hair and came tangle free, fits well, only thing is that the 2 strands fall directly down on your face, but nothing a bew bobby pins wont fix. So pleased with the purchase and delivery was very prompt. Good value fun cosplay wig look forward to wearing it surprisingly full and good colour toowould reccomend. Just right for my larp character. SummaryReviewer Nathalie DuboisReview Date2017-12-14 08:28:27Reviewed Item Women’s Fashion Pink Blue Weave Cosplay Wigs Gradual ColorRating 5.0 / 5  stars, based on  19  reviewsPrice£15.99last_img read more