CNET Book Club Infinite Detail asks what if the internet dies

first_img Culture Share your voice CNET Book Club Tim Maughan (right) and Scott Stein (left) at the podcast studio. CNET Cast your mind forward, five, 10, 30 years. What will the future of the ultra-connected smart city be like? Glad you asked, because Infinite Detail is as good an exploration of the promises and fears of the next decade as you’re likely to read.Tim Maughan, a journalist for Vice/Motherboard, New Scientist and the BBC, joins us on the podcast to discuss his novel Infinite Detail. We talk about what scares him about smart cities, the possibilities and pitfalls of augmented reality, and a lot more.Subscribe: CNET RSS | iTunes | FeedBurner | Google Play | TuneIn | Stitcher See Infinite Detail on Amazon9780374175412Infinite Detail. Tim Maughan/FSG Set in both a creepily frictionless New York City of the deep-surveillance near-future and a rebellious anti-surveillance community in Bristol, UK called The Croft, Infinite Detail also jumps back and forth in time. Half of the book takes place in a near future fully immersed in AR smartglasses and information-collecting infrastructures. The other half lives in an even farther-off future where the internet as we know it, and much of the global infrastructure, has collapsed.I won’t spoil anything else in between, but the politically-charged book follows the spirit of Cory Doctorow’s 2017 novel, Walkaway, and in some ways, Station 11 by Emily St. John Mandel: It’s both pre- and post-apocalyptic, and yet also oddly optimistic. I swear. About CNET Book Club The Book Club is hosted by a pair of self-proclaimed book experts: Dan Ackerman (author of the nonfiction video game history book The Tetris Effect), and Scott Stein, a playwright and screenwriter. We’ll be announcing our next Book Club selection soon, so send us your suggestions and keep an eye out for updates on Twitter at @danackerman and @jetscott. Previous episodes Borne by Jeff VanderMeerWalkaway by Cory DoctorowArtemis by Andy WeirDown the River Unto the Sea by Walter MosleyTen Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now by Jaron LanierCNET Book Club: Holiday 2018 gift guide specialTeam Human by Douglas RushkoffGiraffes on Horseback Salad by Josh Frank, Manuela Pertega, and Tim Heidecker Subscribe to CNET Book Club: CNET RSS | iTunes | FeedBurner | Google Play | TuneIn | Stitcher 0 Tags Post a commentlast_img read more

Tiger out of the woods with Augusta Masters win Last hurrah or

first_imgTiger Woods ended his major title drought with victory at Augusta MastersreutersWhen he won his fifth Masters title and 15th major championship on April 14, Tiger Woods regained his place at the top of the golfing world. This victory ends a drought of 11 years without a major title, a period which saw the 43-year old going through mental and physical travails which left him looking like a spent force. But with this win, there is talk of resurgence and return to his top form.Tiger Woods was synonymous with golf about a decade ago. Even those who didn’t follow the sport knew his name. But then, in 2009, things came apart in a spectacular way when he was revealed to have been involved in several promiscuous relationships outside his marriage. Suddenly, this icon of the sport, seen as a role model, became a target of scorn.This personal disaster led to a complete breakdown in his professional life as well. The man who, at that time, had 14 major titles under his belt and seemed favourite to break Jack Nicklaus’ record of 18, went into a downward spiral.But the vagaries of sport can never be predicted. On Sunday, April 14, Tiger was back on a familiar perch – that of a champion at Augusta Masters. It was here that he announced his arrival as a future great when he secured his first major title at the age of 21. 13 more titles followed until a drought began following 2008 US Open. Tiger Woods reacts to win the Tour Championship golf tournament at East Lake Golf ClubreutersHis success brought the world’s attention back to golf. It is clear that even today, nobody commands as much stardom among golfers as Woods. US President Donald Trump, an avid golfer himself, tweeted praise for the star. “What a fantastic life comeback for a really great guy,” was the tweet from the leader of the country. He was joined by his predecessor Barack Obama who also showered praise on the 43-year old for recovering his form.Now that he is back to his winning ways, talk of him breaking Nicklaus’ record of 18 major titles has revived. Though he may not yet be back to his best – he scored a bogey on the last hole – but this victory can be a new start for the five-time Masters champion.As much as the emotional turmoil, the physical difficulties faced by Woods in the last decade were also of a high order. Serious surgeries on his back had caused considerable difficulties and even threatened to end his career. The fact that he could now compete and win at the highest level suggests that both on the emotional and physical front, Woods is back to his best. Can he follow this triumph with other great victories? Only time with tell.last_img read more

When Pranavi Acharya threatened to slap director with slipper for seeking sexual

first_imgSinger Pranavi AcharyaInstagramSinger Pranavi Acharya is the latest Telugu celeb to speak about casting couch. She recently revealed that she had threatened a director to slap him with slipper after he asked for sexual favours.In an interview, Pranavi Acharya opened up about facing casting couch in the Telugu film industry in the initial phase of her career. She said that a director had asked her for sexual favours in order to give her a chance to sing in his films. She said that she indicated to him that his advances were not welcome, but he insisted.Pranavi Acharya said that she took a stand and gave him a strong warning. She revealed that she had said “Cheppu tho kodatha” (Will slap you with my slipper) when he insisted. She also revealed that a few others had invited her to have sex and even blackmailed that she would get offers, only if she compromises.Pranavi Acharya is one of the popular playback singers, anchors and dubbing artists in the Telugu film industry. She had participated in Doordarshan singing competition before starting her career as a singer with the song “Shuddha Brahma” from the movie Sriramadasu in 2006. Pranavi Acharya with her husband Raghu MasterInstagramShe has now sung about 200 songs in 70 movies. She is known for her songs from films like Sri Ramadasu, Happy Days, Yamadonga and Lion. She has also worked as a singer of TV serial title song. She won the Andhra Pradesh state Nandi Awards for the serial Turpu velle railu and Bharatamuni Award for the film Happy Days and Navayuvagalam for the film Yamadonga.Pranavi Acharya entered the wedlock with choreographer Raghu Master in 2016 and they were blessed with a daughter. Raghu hogged the limelight with the dance show Dhee and later he became dance master for many movies. He is known for his work in some popular movies like Arya 2, Mirchi, Jil and Akhil.last_img read more

Microscope Sees with Nanoscale Resolution

first_img The collaborative team, led by Jianwei Miao and Changyong Song from the University of California at Los Angeles, also includes researchers from the Australian Synchotron, and Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. The ultimate resolution of the x-ray images, the scientists say, is limited only by the x-ray wavelengths, and can in principle reach the near-atomic level (the diameter of an average atom is around 0.1 nanometers). The study is published in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.“This is one of the highest resolutions obtained for x-ray microscopy,” Miao told PhysOrg.com. “It not only provides high-resolution images but also elemental specificity. For example, atomic spectroscopy only provides spectra, but not images.”The imaging technique is called resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy, and this is the first demonstration of using the technique to image buried structures (such as dopants within host elements) at such a high resolution. Resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy is different than most imaging techniques because the microscope doesn’t have a lens. By avoiding the use of a lens, the method also avoids the limitations of lenses, such as a limited depth of focus that limits the thickness of the sample under investigation.Instead of a lens, the microscope consists of a 10-micrometer-diameter pinhole that selects the most spatially coherent part of the x-ray beam, which provides the “strongest” wavelength. The x-ray beam first takes images of two x-ray diffraction patterns of a sample: one pattern just above the sample’s absorption edge, and one just below. (The absorption edge, or band edge, occurs when incident photons obtain enough energy [binding energy] to excite the atom’s electrons and produce a photoelectron.)Then, the researchers determined the difference between the two diffraction patterns to obtain the spatial distribution of the element. Knowing the spatial distribution enabled the researchers to determine not only the surface structure, but also the index of refraction of the sample, which can be used to determine its molecular contents. The researchers demonstrated the technique by mapping out bismuth (Bi) dopants that are broadly dispersed and buried inside silicon (Si) atoms. In other studies, researchers have used Bi dopants to control and manipulate the physical properties of materials in order to design advanced, highly functional materials, such as in semiconductors. Because the microscope’s CCD camera recorded thousands of diffraction patterns, the researchers developed an evolutionary algorithm to pick out the images with the best characteristics to pass on to succeeding generations and create a final spatial distribution. When analyzing the map of the Bi dopants, the researchers found that Bi atoms, which are three times larger than Si atoms, sometimes form clusters that can influence atomic growth. Insights like this may help scientists better understand the 3D self-assembly of nanostructures.“The resonant x-ray diffraction microscope can be adapted to perform electronic orbital as well as chemical state specific imaging of a broad range of systems,” said Miao. “These include magnetic materials, semiconductors, organic materials, bio-minerals, and biological specimens.”More information: Song, Changyoung, Bergstrom, Raymond, Ramunno-Johnson, Damien, Jiang, Huaidong, Paterson, David, Jonge, Martin D., McNulty, Ian, Lee, Jooyoung, Wang, Kang L., and Miao, Jianwei. “Nanoscale Imaging of Buried Structures with Elemental Specificity Using Resonant X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy.” Physical Review Letters 100, 025504 (2008).Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further The resonant x-ray diffraction microscope takes two diffraction patterns, above and below the element’s absorption edge. The patterns are phased to obtain high-resolution images, and the difference of the two images represents the spatial distribution of the element. Image credit: Changyoung Song, et al. Researchers have recently built an x-ray microscope that has a pixel resolution of just 15 nanometers, allowing scientists to study the properties of materials at the molecular scale and beyond. Citation: Microscope Sees with Nanoscale Resolution (2008, January 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-01-microscope-nanoscale-resolution.html Breakthrough With Ultra-Fast Xrays This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Enhanced strength and ductility in a highentropy alloy via ordered oxygen complexes

first_img Deformation mode. a) STEM image of the TiZrHfNb base HEA at 8% tensile strain (the yellow arrows indicate the coplanar dislocation arrays). b) STEM image of O-2 HEA at 8% tensile strain (the red arrows indicate the dipolar walls). c) STEM image of N-2 HEA at 8% tensile strain (the yellow arrows indicate the planar slip bands). Typical planar slip is observed in the base HEA and in the nitrogen-doped alloy variant N-2 HEA. However, wavy slip dominates deformation of the oxygen doped variant O-2 HEA, suggesting that oxygen addition leads to a plastic deformation mode dominated by wavy slip. The beam direction in a and c is [011] while that in b is [001]. d) Dislocation spacing of the TiZrHfNb base HEA and of the interstitially doped variants O-2 and N-2 HEAs probed during in situ TEM tensile experiments. The white arrows represent the dislocation spacing. The average dislocation spacing in the O-2 HEA is much smaller than that in the base HEA and in the N-2 HEA. The error bars are standard deviations of the mean. Credit: Nature, doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0685-y Journal information: Nature To understand the underlying mechanism of this anomalous, interstitial solid-solution strengthening effect observed with oxygen doped materials, nanostructures of materials were investigated at the atomic scale. For this, the scientists first used synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the base HEA compared with the two alloy variants of O-2 and N-2 HEA. The results showed that addition of either nitrogen or oxygen to the base HEA did not change its single-phase body-centered cubic (b.c.c) structure. This observation was confirmed by electron back-scattering diffraction mapping. In the scanning transmission electron microscope high-angle annular dark field micrograph (STEM-HAADF) images of the O-2 HEA; light atoms were represented in dark contrast, while heavy atoms were imaged bright. Mechanical properties. a) Room-temperature tensile stress–strain curves for the as-cast TiZrHfNb (denoted as base alloy), (TiZrHfNb)98O2 (denoted as O-2) and (TiZrHfNb)98N2 (denoted as N-2) HEAs. σy is the yield strength (squares), σUTS is the ultimate strength (diamonds) and ε is the elongation (circles). The inset shows the corresponding strain hardening response (dσ/dε). A higher work-hardening rate is observed for the O-2 HEA variant (TiZrHfNb)98O2 compared to the base HEA TiZrHfNb and the N-2 HEA (TiZrHfNb)98N2. b) Changes in strength and ductility observed for the HEAs introduced here, relative to several types of established high-performance alloys. The reference systems are Ti6Al4V, β-Ti alloys, niobium, vanadium, interstitial free steel and 316 austenitic stainless steels. The alloys’ interstitial oxygen or nitrogen content is indicated for comparison. Credit: Nature, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0685-y Schematic diagram illustrating the mechanism of plastic deformation in the cubic structure of the oxygen-rich high-entropy alloy (HEA). a) In the oxygen-high entropy alloys, the ordered oxygen complexes (OOCs) acted on dislocations in mechanical strain studies. b) During the initial stages of plastic deformation, the planar slip still prevailed. c) Once the dislocations encountered severely distorted interstitial-enriched OOCs, cross-slip is promoted due to their strong pinning effects. d) This results in massive dislocation multiplications. e) More and more dislocations are pinned by OOCs, and dipolar walls emerged as the strain increased to promote work hardening of the material, eventually leading to higher ductility. Credit: Nature, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0685-y Researchers present new strategy for extending ductility in a single-phase alloy Engineering strong, tough (damage-tolerant) materials traditionally requires striking a compromise between hardness and ductility. In the new study, oxygen complexes were structurally ordered in nanoscale regions within the HEA characterized by oxygen, zirconium and titanium (O, Zr, Ti)-rich atomic complexes. Formation of these complexes was promoted by chemical short-range ordering among matrix elements within the HEAs. In face-centered cubic HEAs, carbon was reported to improve strength and ductility by lowering stacking fault energy and increasing lattice friction stress. By contrast, ordered interstitial complexes described by Lei et al. mediated a strain-harvesting mechanism with potential for specific use in Ti, Zr, and Hf (Hafnium)-containing alloys. Interstitial elements are usually highly undesirable in such metal alloys due to their embrittlement effects and since tuning the stacking fault energy and exploitation of thermal transfer had not previously led to property enhancement in other alloys. The novel study results therefore provided insight to the role of interstitial solid solutions and the associated mechanisms of strengthening metallic materials. The work is now published in Nature. Explore further Citation: Enhanced strength and ductility in a high-entropy alloy via ordered oxygen complexes (2018, November 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-strength-ductility-high-entropy-alloy-oxygen.html Oxygen is an abundant element that can form undesired impurities or ceramic phases in metallic materials, while doping the element on metal can render substrates brittle. During interactions with metallic alloys, oxygen takes a state between oxide particles and frequently occurring random interstitials to form ordered oxygen complexes. In a new study, materials scientists Zhinfeng Lei and co-workers observed that unlike in traditional interstitial strengthening, such ordered interstitial complexes could form high-entropy alloys (HEAs) with unprecedented enhancement in strength and ductility in compositionally complex solid solutions. When the scientists doped a model TiZrHfNb HEA with 2.0 atomic percent (2 at%) oxygen, they observed substantially enhanced tensile strength and ductility, breaking a longstanding conflict on strength and ductility trade-off. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.center_img Statistical analysis of STEM-HAADF and corresponding annular bright field (ABF) images conducted thereafter demonstrated that oxygen preferred interstitial positions adjacent to light-atom-rich lattice sites. Such preference was not observed in the N-2 HEA. In accordance with the solid-solution strengthening model proposed by Fleischer, the calculations for O-2 and N-2 HEAs confirmed their hardening mechanisms were of interstitial nature. Yet, unlike traditional interstitial strengthening that embrittled alloys, the presence of oxygen simultaneously increased both strength and ductility in the b.c.c TiZrHfNb HEA. The key question posed by the substructure analysis is why the addition of interstitial oxygen greatly enhanced the alloy’s work hardening capacity and ductility, compared to nitrogen-containing complexes. During plastic deformation, dislocations are typically stored and arranged in ordered patterns in metal alloys. To study such dislocation patterns in more detail, the researchers conducted high-resolution aberration-corrected STEM characterization of pre-strained specimens. At the nanoscale, oxygen-containing complexes severely distorted the local lattice, causing a large strain field around them. During deformation, the ordered oxygen complexes (OOCs) interacted with dislocations as revealed by STEM images. To further illuminate the intrinsic mechanisms at the atomic scale, the scientists conducted aberration-corrected STEM. At this point, they observed that the intrinsic features of OOCs in the O-2 HEA alloy variant enabled high work hardening due to dipolar walls that emerged with increasing stress that eventually led to higher ductility in the oxygen doped materials. Such complex-dislocation dynamics were not observed for the N-2 HEA, leading to comparatively modest ductility as a result. More information: Zhifeng Lei et al. Enhanced strength and ductility in a high-entropy alloy via ordered oxygen complexes, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0685-y Robert O. Ritchie. The conflicts between strength and toughness, Nature Materials (2011). DOI: 10.1038/nmat3115 Zhiming Li et al. Metastable high-entropy dual-phase alloys overcome the strength–ductility trade-off, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature17981 Microscopic structure. a, b) Synchrotron high-energy XRD and the corresponding electron back-scattering diffraction patterns of the as-cast equiatomic TiZrHfNb and the interstitially doped solid-solution HEAs. All the as-cast HEAs have single b.c.c. lattice structure. c–e) STEM-HAADF images for the [011] b.c.c. crystal axis with differently adjusted contrast to reveal the existence of chemical short-range ordering in the O-2 HEA (TiZrHfNb)98O2, and the corresponding STEM-ABF image that reveals the ordered oxygen complexes (OOCs). Red squares represent the Zr/Ti-rich regions and yellow squares indicate the Hf/Nb-rich regions. The inset in e is an enlarged view of the OOCs, with the white arrows indicating the positions of the oxygen atom columns. f) Atom probe tomography three-dimensional reconstruction from the analysis of a specimen from the O-2 HEA. The threshold for the iso-composition surface is 3.0 at% O, highlighting the presence of OOCs. g) O composition profile as a function of the distance to the interface for a selection of particles (left axis) and evolution of the composition of the main constituents relative to their respective matrix composition (right axis). The inset shows a close-up of one such OOC, along with the {011} atomic plane imaged within the reconstruction. Ni is the number of the ith atom, while Ci and Ci, matrix are the concentrations of the ith atom in the OOCs and in the matrix, respectively. Credit: Nature, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0685-y In the study, the researchers investigated the base alloy TiZrHfNb and its optimally oxygen-doped variant (TiZrHfNb)98O2 (denoted as O-2 HEA here on) for comparison, alongside an interstitial variant with 2.0 atomic percent nitrogen (TiZrHfNb)98N2, hitherto referred as N-2 HEA. Mechanical properties of the three types of HEAs were observed using tensile stress-strain curves. A strong strengthening effect was observed for both oxygen- and nitrogen-doped HEAs. As expected from conventional interstitial strengthening, the ductility of the N-2 HEA reduced. Addition of 0.2 at% (atomic percent) oxygen to the base HEA (TiZrHfNb) improved its strength and ductility. A substantial work-hardening effect was observed for O-2 HEA compared to base-HEA and N-2 HEA, to impart an unexpected increase in ductility to the oxygen doped material. The addition of more than 3.0 at% oxygen, however, led to deterioration of the observed mechanical properties. The findings by Lei et al. showed that the strength-ductility conflict could be overcome for a class of metal alloys (HEAs), while demonstrating a completely new type of strain-hardening mechanism based on ordered interstitial complexes. The resulting high strain-hardening reserve led to increased strength and ductility. By itself, the base HEA (TiZrHfNb) is not suited for use in high-temperature applications due to oxidation problems. Alloying with antioxidant elements such as Al, Si and Cr could improve resistance to oxidation with HEAs – as also previously seen in HEA designs. The authors recommend application of such ordered interstitial strengthening mechanisms to a wider range of other alloy material classes for improved strength-ductility and strain-hardening during the development of advanced materials. Dislocation movements during deformation of the O-2 HEA. Credit: Nature, doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0685-y © 2018 Science X Network The observations revealed regions of light atoms (Ti, Zr-rich) and regions rich in heavy atoms (Nb, Hf-rich) in the O-2 HEA. Similar zones also appeared in STEM images of the base and N-2 HEAs to confirm chemical short-range ordering among the metallic matrix elements as an inherent feature of HEAs. During deformation in any one of the three alloys, no phase transformation occurred. Ex-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in-situ mechanical testing confirmed that deformation of the three alloys occurred similarly via the process of dislocation glide. , Nature Materialslast_img read more

Trinamool Cong on same page over tea garden workers plight

first_imgKolkata: The ruling Trinamool Congress and the Congress were on the same page at the state Assembly on Monday while claiming that injustice has been done with the workers of the tea gardens in the recent Central Budget.In the mentioned case at the Assembly, state Parliamentary Affairs minister Partha Chatterjee triggered the discussion lambasting the Central government’s decision to pay the wages of the tea garden workers through banks and impose 2 percent cess on their wages. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata”The tea garden workers have been neglected in the recent Budget. There has been hardly any money allocated for the rejuvenation of the tea gardens. But they have now decided to pay the wages of the workers through banks. They should know that there is hardly any bank in close proximity to the tea gardens,” Chatterjee said. He reiterated that the tea garden workers are paid in cash usually by the end of a week so that they can meet their immediate requirements. “They have also imposed cess on the wages. These steps are nothing but an initiative to push the tea garden workers in dire straits,” Chatterjee said. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateHe alleged that the Centre had made tall claims for the development of the tea gardens but the Budget has nothing to augment the livelihood of the workers. Taking the cue from Chatterjee, Leader of the Opposition Abdul Mannan said the problem of the tea garden workers has been persisting for some years and the secular parties have often protested against it. “If you give permission, we can form a team of representatives of the MLAs and protest directly. I feel we need to speak directly with the concerned Union minister,” Mannan said referring to Speaker Biman Banerjee. Banerjee then said that the topic may be discussed. Later in the day, Chatterjee said: “I have requested the Left and BJP even to come together. It is an issue of the state and we should ensure the interest of the state first”.last_img read more