Time to rewrite the textbooks again. The story of plant evolution is wrong. Lignin, a chemical that gives wood its stiffness, was thought to be unique to land plants. Now it has been found in red algae, reported Science Daily, with the title, “Billion-year Revision Of Plant Evolution Timeline May Stem From Discovery Of Lignin In Seaweed.” This story illustrates that anything is possible in evolutionary biology these days. According to evolutionists, red algae emerged much earlier than land plants. How are they going to explain a complex molecule, which is manufactured by a complex process, being found in a more “primitive” life form? “Because red and green algae likely diverged more than a billion years ago, the discovery of lignin in red algae suggests that the basic machinery for producing lignin may have existed long before algae moved to land.” But that just seems to restate the problem. The alternative, though, is even harder to swallow: “Alternatively, algae and land plants may have evolved the identical compound independently, after they diverged.” The independent evolution of an identical compound in unrelated lines is tantamount to a miracle. Look what Mark Denny of Stanford said about this: “The pathways, enzymes and genes that go into making this stuff are pretty complicated, so to come up with all those separately would be really, really amazing,”says Denny. “Anything is possible, but that would be one hell of a coincidence.”Paper View: Denny’s statement warranted a further look at the original paper in Current Biology.1 Sure enough, the only two options were evolutionary, and neither was unproblematic. “The discovery of polymerized hydroxycinnamyl alcohols (lignin) within the cell walls of a red alga has major evolutionary implications,” they said in a tone of understatement. Either the ability to synthesize lignin emerged in a single-celled ancestor (with no need for the sturdiness of plant stems), or it emerged by convergent evolution in unrelated lineages. “Because monolignol synthesis is exceptionally complex, it seems unlikely that Calliarthron [the red alga] and terrestrial plants evolved monolignol biosynthesis and polymerization completely independently,” they confessed (see 05/30/2008, bullet 2). Why, then, did the title of their paper say this “reveals convergent evolution of cell-wall architecture”? Perhaps there is a way to get the best of both explanations. “It seems more likely that relevant pathways, such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and polymerization by peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation, may be deeply conserved, having evolved prior to the divergence of red and green algae more than 1 billion years ago.” If so, “we may expect to find conserved enzymatic pathways and, potentially, evidence of lignification among the multitude of evolutionary intermediates.” The search is on. Nevertheless, they did entertain the possibility that red algae and land plants converged on the highly-complex lignin pathways independently. For support, they pointed to one other case of convergent evolution in lignin synthesis: “For example, angiosperms and the lycopod Selaginella synthesize S lignin via distinct and independently evolved cytochrome-P450-dependent monooxygenases, and production of S lignin in Calliarthron may reflect a third convergent pathway.” This seems to beg the question that they evolved. Perhaps two improbabilities are better than one, and three better than two. Since nothing but evolution is allowed in the explanation, though, those are the choices. Maybe imagining other uses for lignin in microbes will help:Lignins are thought to have evolved in the green algal lineage as adaptations to terrestrial habitats, facilitating hydraulic transport and contributing to the mechanical stability of upright stems. However, contrary to the current paradigm, our data indicate that H, G, and S lignins exist within a red alga’s calcified cells that lack hydraulic vasculature and have little need for additional support. We speculate that lignin biosynthetic pathways may have functioned in the common unicellular ancestor of red and green algae, protecting cells from microbial infection or UV radiation, and in Calliarthron, lignins may orient the fibrillar scaffolding that guides CaCO3 deposition.While we’re speculating, let’s imagine more with the long leash of evolutionary thinking. There may have been other needs within brainless microbes that provided opportunities for evolutionary invention via “selective pressure.”The presence of G lignin within the secondary walls of peripheral genicular cells may represent convergent evolution of cellular architecture in response to mechanical stress, given that G lignins also concentrate within secondary walls of terrestrial plant fibers. Selective pressures in the marine environment differ from those on land, but the wind-induced drag forces that presumably contributed to the evolution of wood in terrestrial plants are mirrored by flow-induced drag forces on aquatic algae. On land, xylem lends mechanical support to erect stems, and in water, genicula provide mechanical support to Calliarthron fronds. As articulated fronds bend back and forth under breaking waves, bending stresses are amplified within peripheral genicular tissue, which develops thick secondary walls, apparently to resist breakage…. We hypothesize that this putative 3- to 5-fold upregulation of lignin biosynthesis in peripheral genicular cells may be mechanically stimulated by bending stresses imposed by breaking waves. Similar mechanical on/off switches for lignin accumulation have been noted in terrestrial systems: plants grown in microgravity synthesize less lignin, whereas plants grown in hypergravity synthesize more lignin. The mechanical consequences of such minute quantities of lignin on genicular material properties may be negligible. Nevertheless, that genicular tissue contains lignin and is also stronger, stiffer, and yet more extensible than other algal tissues is an intriguing coincidence, and lignin’s potential role in these properties is an area of active research.Their reasoning leaves out a key question. Their evidence refers only to spots where lignin accumulates in response to mechanical stress. How did it get there in the first place? What does accumulation have to do with the origin of the lignin synthesis machinery? They didn’t say. The argument merely hints that an applied stress will somehow produce the goods. Necessity is the mother of invention. Having earlier admitted that lignin synthesis is “exceptionally complex,” it is perhaps surprising to hear them land on the side of convergent evolution in their concluding paragraph. Their last sentence included overt teleological language:Convergent evolution of cell structure and development in Calliarthron genicula and terrestrial xylem may clarify lignin biosynthesis and lend insight into the early evolution of land plants. It is striking that Calliarthron contains lignified cell walls but evolved from calcified ancestors that lacked water-conducting tracheids or vessels. Vascular plants may have realized hydraulic transport by tapping into ancient biosynthetic pathways that initially evolved to fortify unicellular walls and were later adapted to provide biomechanical support.With funding from the National Science Foundation, Patrick Martone (co-author with Denny) is continuing work on this surprising discovery. Science Daily ended, “Martone says the research team has started looking for billion-year-old lignin genes that might be shared among land plants and red algae, and has started exploring whether lignin exists in other aquatic algae and what role it plays in the evolution and function of aquatic plants.”1. Martone, Estevez, Lu, Ruel, Denny, Somerville and Ralph, “Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell-Wall Architecture,” Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 2, 27 January 2009, Pages 169-175, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.031.Darwinism is supposed to be this law-governed, enlightened, mechanistic, scientific theory that gives rational explanations for observed phenomena in nature. Pray tell, what is the difference between their evolutionary explanation and that of a shaman? We have just seen these scientists invoke spirits. They called on the spirit of convergent evolution, the spirit of Tinker Bell, and the spirit of vascular plants tapping into ancient biosynthetic pathways that “initially evolved to fortify” cell walls of microbes. These purpose-driven spirits produced lignin biosynthesis machinery on demand, just because of environmental stress. Miraculous (see 03/25/2003). “Anything is possible,” Denny said. At least Christians have a sufficient Cause when they say, “With God, all things are possible.” When you learn to look past the big words and identify the key passages in a scientific paper, it’s like taking your gaze off the Wizard of Oz act and pulling up the curtain where the charlatan is hiding. A theory that says “anything can happen,” even coincidences that are “really, really amazing” can explain anything. Is this enlightened? Is this progressive? Is this rational? No matter what the observations, the Darwin Party has carte blanche to say “It evolved, because stuff happens” (09/15/2008). To get really disgusted, read how the Astrobiology Magazine spun this finding in to a positive for evolution! “The team’s finding provides a new perspective on the early evolution of lignified support tissues – such as wood – on land, since the seaweed tissues that are most stressed by waves crashing on shore appear to contain the most lignin, possibly contributing to mechanical support, says Martone.” This is why we really need to end the one-party rule in science. The Darwinists have done nothing to stop the rampant, blatant, out-of-control identity theft (05/02/2003) and credit fraud (08/24/2007) that is damaging the public trust (12/18/2002).(Visited 371 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Eskom and its fellow Sapp members are working hard to ensure uninterrupted power for the 2010 Fifa World Cup. (Image: Chris Kirchhoff,MediaClubSouthAfrica.com. For more free photos, visit the image library.) Kendal power station in Mpumalanga. Power utilities across the Southern African Development Community will link to secure a steady source of electricity for 2010. (Image: Graeme Williams,MediaClubSouthAfrica.com. For more free photos, visit the image library.)Janine ErasmusFootball fans can rest assured that their 2010 Fifa World Cup experience will be uninterrupted by power cuts, as a group of 11 Southern African countries have pledged to ensure a stable supply of electricity for the world’s biggest sporting event.The Southern African Power Pool (Sapp) has given its assurance that both the World Cup and the upcoming 2009 Confederations Cup will be consistently well-lit. Stadiums will only be plunged into darkness once the last fan has gone home.The power group met in Maputo, Mozambique, at the end of April 2009 to discuss the initiative, which is driven by Eskom, South Africa’s national power utility. Eskom is taking great pains to ensure a steady power supply for the event, especially in light of the spate of power cuts that rocked South Africa in early 2007, causing electricity exports to neighbouring countries to slow and public opinion of the power provider to plummet.The electricity troubles also caused widespread debate and doubt about South Africa’s ability to host a successful football tournament, but Fifa is satisfied that the country is capable and that preparations are proceeding smoothly. A recent Fifa inspection team found no cause for alarm. “For the World Cup we are all on track,” said Fifa general secretary Jerome Valcke.Green power tooIn terms of power generation and transmission, customer contributions and demand side management, fans need not worry. And for those whose concerns include the environment, a certain amount of power supplied will be green.Talks are already in progress to secure an extra 400MW of hydropower, primarily from Mozambique’s Cahora Bassa, but also from Lesotho, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia.Johnny Dladla, MD of Eskom’s Project 2010 unit, said, “We are delighted with the level of co-operation we are receiving from our Sapp counterparts. This initiative confirms that the 2010 Fifa World Cup is truly and indeed an African event.”Sapp chair Rhodnie Sisala added that the group confidently expected South Africans, the entire Southern African region and football fans from around the world to experience an unforgettable African World Cup.Special planningThe agreement has been reached after several months of planning and negotiation, according to Eskom. It covers key areas such as adequate transmission capacity for the transfer of power to South Africa, preventative pre-event maintenance and cleaning, maximising plant production, energy efficiency initiatives and load curtailment during the events.Individual commercial contracts are still to be concluded between Eskom and the other Sapp members. Dladla said that Eskom hoped to obtain an extra 500 to 1 000MW of electricity from Sapp.Strategies discussed for 2010 include demand-side initiatives, which are techniques aimed at improving the use of electricity by consumers, and the implementation of plans for a constant use of electricity, thus avoiding the peak-time surge in demand that puts so much strain on the national grid.Demand-side management also results in reduced environmental damage, as more efficient use of electricity means that less of it needs to be generated. For every kilowatt-hour of electricity generation saved at a power station, said Eskom, the environment is spared one kilogram of carbon dioxide.Sapp members will be encouraged to produce less power during peak times and more during the quieter periods. While games are in progress, those Sapp members whose plants are idle may take them offline for planned maintenance.Reliable and economical electricityThe Southern African Power Pool is a group of 11 countries within the Southern African Development Community that have come together with the aim of providing economical and reliable electricity to each of its members.The group is made up of power producers in Mozambique, Botswana, Malawi, Angola, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.Because resources are connected and pooled, some Sapp members have been able to postpone large capital outlays which would have been spent on building new plants. Interconnectivity between SADC countries is an important part of the Sapp strategy.Some of the group’s major challenges include infrastructure limitations and lack of maintenance of existing infrastructure, limited funds, and insufficient generation as was seen in 2007 when Eskom was unable to meet the demand of South African consumers.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Contact Janine Erasmus at firstname.lastname@example.org.Related articlesTicketing centres for Confed CupWorld Cup ticket frenzy Uefa praises SA’s 2010 readiness 500 days to 2010 Useful linksSouthern African Power PoolEskomDepartment of Minerals and EnergyNational Energy Regulator of South Africa2010 Fifa World Cup
The first SME Indaba organised by AHI South Africa discussed why big and small businesses should work together.Former deputy minister of finance Mcebisi Jonas (left) and AHI South Africa president Bernard Swanepoel. Jonas was a speaker at the SME Indaba on 5 April 2017. He says bringing small and big business together is a powerful tool. (Image: Melissa Javan)Melissa JavanPay invoices on time, AHI South Africa president Bernard Swanepoel challenged owners of big corporates, the government and members of his organisation. “Think small [businesses] first. Consider the effects on small and medium enterprises (SMEs).”Swanepoel gave the welcoming address of AHI South Africa’s first SME Indaba, held in Centurion on 5 April 2017. The theme of the one-day conference was “Creating jobs against all odds”.Swanepoel’s second challenge was that his members commit this year to creating two entry level jobs. “Take your business and create a job.”He added: “If there is no growth in your business, it will die. You cannot stagnate as a business… Invest in your businesses. Invest in the future of the country.”Businesses, get involvedFormer deputy minister of finance Mcebisi Jonas was the keynote speaker. He said the future of the country was in South Africans’ hands. “We need to strengthen leadership.”There was a need for the business sector to be involved in and to collaborate with government programmes, especially when it came to training emerging entrepreneurs, he said.Jonas also urged businesses to invest in doing research so that relevant training could be given to students. Businesses should go to where students who needed relevant industry training were, in colleges and universities.Members should not underestimate the power of an organisation such as the AHI, he said. “[An organisation like this] can provide a stronger network of enterprises. Bringing small and big business together is a powerful tool.“You can see how you can use the supply chain to promote growth – you enhance growth where there is an organisation of big and small business.”The AHI is a national multisectoral, inclusive business organisation consisting of corporate, medium and small enterprises and affiliated business chambers. It represents more than 100 business chambers, more than 4,000 businesses and has trained 740 entrepreneurs, it says.The AHI’s mission is to promote the economic and business interests of its members and to facilitate networks and interaction between businesses and the government.DowngradeAsked about South Africa being downgraded to junk status by ratings agency S&P Global Ratings on 5 April, Jonas said: “We will bounce back as a country but it will require that we become more robust. We need to boost things such as our agricultural programmes and other programmes that are working.”He added: “We need to do more about scaling.”A national dialogue was needed so we could talk about where we should be going as a country. “I fear that if we don’t have a national dialogue we’ll be replacing the white elite with the black elite. That is not right.”Chief executive officer of AHI South Africa, Dr. Ernest Messina, Prof. Edith Vries of the Department: Small Business Development and Ashraf Adam of the South Africa Local Government Association are panellists discussing “How national and local governments enable or stifle SMEs” at the SME Indaba on 5 April 2017. (Image: Melissa Javan)SMMEs’ challengesBusiness Unity South Africa (Busa) had found the number one barrier for many SMEs was access to skilled staff, said Tanya Cohen, the organisation’s CEO. She spoke about the challenges SMEs faced.Skills training and relevant transformation was necessary, said Cohen. It was important that the South African economy was open to all. “We need to do this; [South Africa must be] inclusive of black people, women, people with disabilities and those living in rural areas.”Cohen also spoke about the country’s minimum wage and its effect on SMMEs. A quarter of small, medium and micro enterprises were able to afford the minimum wage, but three-quarters of SMMEs “are going to struggle to pay [it]”.Negotiations were ongoing to exempt SMMEs from paying the minimum wage. “It’s something that we will have to continue to motivate for.”It was Busa’s mission to secure conditions so that business could thrive, Cohen said. “Our focus is what we can do for business.”Other discussionsEntrepreneurs on the panel “Negotiating the minefield of regulation and bureaucracy affecting SMEs”, had advice for businesses:Paul Marias: “My best investment advice is read, read and read. Also comply with the legislation.”Octavia Motloa: “A lot of people think that if they are a small business they can do mediocre work. No, it shouldn’t be. The quality of your work must be exceptional. As you excel in that it creates opportunities.”Annie Malan: “Continuously ask yourself ‘how do I re-evaluate myself?’ You have to stay ahead [of the game].” Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Much nicer air in over the state again today, as our frontal complex exited yesterday. We now are settling into a drier pattern. There is plenty of moisture trying to move across the western, central and northern corn belt, but over the next 2 weeks, it seems to fall apart well before it gets here. An upper level high sitting over the SE should continue to steer this action by to our northwest. Here is our updated outlook this morning.Mostly sunny and pleasant today, Temps near normal, and low humidity. Tomorrow we see an increase in clouds, but no significant precipitation potential. That being said, with the increase in moisture in the atmospheric profile, we cant rule out a few sprinkles from US 30 northward…but those are not a big part of our outlook. We are back to partly-mostly sunny skies on Thursday and stay that way through the balance of the week.Over the weekend, we are largely dry over Ohio, but on Saturday we cant rule out scattered showers in the far NW and SE areas. We are talking a few hundredths to .3″ with only 20% coverage, and the rest of the state just sees a mix of clouds and sun. Partly sunny skies expected in all areas Sunday.Next week we are fully dry Monday through Friday. Temps will be cooler next week, after slowly building some later this week and over the weekend.10 day rain potential
Related Posts sarah perez Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Tags:#advertising#Apple#news#NYT#Trends#web 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market According to mobile marketing firm Brand in Hand, female iPhone users are the worst demographic in terms of interacting with mobile ads on the iPhone. The company, whose high-profile clients include Procter & Gamble, General Mills and American Express, has run 60+ mobile ad campaigns over the past two years. During that time, they’ve had the opportunity to study the engagement of iPhone users with their ads. So why are women ignoring the ads? Apparently, they’re too busy actually using the apps. Women Use the Apps, Ignore the AdsFrom an article on AdAge, which reported on Brand in Hand’s news in detail, the reason that the women were not engaging with the mobile advertisements came down to how they actually used their phones. The research showed that women, “especially so-called super-moms, are task-oriented and tend to use their smartphones to help them get things done.” In other words, these busy iPhone users didn’t have time to goof off by clicking (or rather, tapping) through on a mobile ad. Ads were seen only as distractions that would take them away from the particular task at hand. For advertisers trying to market to this particular demographic, the new findings will have an impact on what type of mobile campaigns will be run in the future. And given that only 18% of women age 18-49 have a smartphone today, according to Nielsen, smartphone advertisements just won’t deliver the numbers that advertisers need. At least for now. A Better Alternative to Mobile Ads?Although the AdAge article didn’t go into any detail about how marketers could engage smartphone-owning women in different ways, we think that there’s at least one company that may have figured it out. Instead of offering distracting mobile banner ads that get in the way of the task that needs to be done, food and beverage giant Kraft introduced their own iPhone app instead.This branded effort, dubbed “iFood Assistant” (iTunes link), is a recipe app that helps users plan meals. This fits in perfectly with how Brand in Hand claim women use their smartphones – they launch apps designed for a particular purpose. Yet this time, while doing so, the women (and men, too, we suppose) are also engaging with the brand itself because the recipes featured in the iFood Assistant app include Kraft food products of course. This app is so successful that Kraft is even able to successfully charge for it, something that rarely works for branded apps. But Kraft’s app sells – and sells well – priced at 99 cents in the iTunes App Store. They even hit their 3-year download goal in a matter of weeks, said Ed Kaczmarek, Kraft Foods director of innovation. While at the moment, Kraft’s iPhone application appears to be the exception and not the rule when it comes to creative marketing efforts, it’s a great example of how mobile marketing could and perhaps should be done, especially if you want to engage busy, task-oriented women. A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting
One commando was killed and 18 others were injured when an IED exploded in the Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra on Wednesday night. The commandos were part of Maharashtra’s elite anti-Naxal Unit C-60. Maoists blew up the commandos’ anti-land mine vehicle with the IED, Inspector-General Shivaji Bodkhe of Maharashtra confirmed.Five of the injured have been airlifted to Nagpur and seven more are on their way. One jawan is said to be in critical condition.
Members of the Ohio State football team began their first day under new coach Urban Meyer Tuesday in a cloud of social media confusion, and it still hasn’t been sorted out. After a 7 a.m. Tuesday meeting with Meyer, several OSU football players tweeted that they were told they were banned from Twitter, a social media platform. Players backtracked and said there was no ban just hours later, but the origin of the supposed ban remains unclear. Junior tight end Reid Fragel tweeted from his account, @FRAGEL88, around noon Tuesday, saying: “New staff new rules. No more twitter, not a big deal and probably for the better. Love our fans, love this place. Go Bucks #2012.” By about 4:45 p.m., Fragel issued the following tweet: “Just now finding out the whole twitter thing wasn’t exactly true. #hearsay.” OSU athletics representative Jerry Emig, who was present at the football team’s Tuesday meeting, told The Lantern that Meyer never informed him of a Twitter ban for the players. “All I know was I was not made aware of a ban,” Emig told The Lantern in a Wednesday email. “I have no idea where this all originated or how it originated.” David A. Goldberger, professor emeritus of law at OSU’s Moritz College of Law, said Tuesday that a complete ban of Twitter, or another social media platform, would be unlawful. “I have my doubt about this, but there may be topics that the coach can put out of bounds, but to say that you can’t use a social media is far too broad,” Goldberger said. “It’s like saying you can’t talk.” From his Twitter account, @king_hyde34, OSU sophomore running back Carlos Hyde said Tuesday: “Well guess its been real twitter ima miss all my followers.” Later that day, Hyde tweeted: “Coach didn’t tell us this morning that twitter is banned guess the media likes to make up things. #GoBucks!” In an Oct. 26 email to The Lantern, OSU athletics spokesman Dan Wallenberg said not every OSU team institutes formal policies on social media use. “Each (OSU) team, if it has a policy, handles on its own,” Wallenberg said. Wallenberg also confirmed that the OSU men’s basketball team, currently the No. 6-ranked team in the Associated Press Top 25 poll, does not have a formal policy. Players, including junior tight end Jake Stoneburner, wasted little time returning to their accounts. From his account, @STONEYeleven, Stoneburner said Wednesday at around 3 p.m.: “Can’t wait to get going in this new offense!”
Rafael Benitez admitted that he was very surprised and upset after his side’s performance in a shocking 1-0 loss to West Bromwich Albion and he didn’t see that coming after the last great performances.The Magpies managed to avoid the relegation by making an impressive run of great results but this game was not the best one for them as they were beaten by last-placed West Brom after a bad performance.The Spaniard spoke about his side’s effort as he said, according to Chronicle Live:“Everything we did in the last few games, we didn’t do.”Jose Mourinho is sold on Lampard succeeding at Chelsea Tomás Pavel Ibarra Meda – September 14, 2019 Jose Mourinho wanted to give his two cents on Frank Lampard’s odds as the new Chelsea FC manager, he thinks he will succeed.There really…“We wanted to get more points to finish higher in the table, but we didn’t do well today, we made a lot of mistakes, and we weren’t good enough.”“We didn’t think the job was done, but it’s a pity because we’ve had a good season, but we want to finish better, too.”“I congratulate the players for a good season, but we need to be better than today.”